Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort descending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site Sheehan, E., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Summary of Environment Impact of Renewable Energy Resources Zhu, J., Cheung, K. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish
A Geographical-Based Multi-Criteria Approach for Marine Energy Farm Planning Maslov, N., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Farfield Environment
Flow-Noise and Turbulence in Two Tidal Channels Bassett, C., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish Iafrate, J., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Integrated Environmental Mapping and Monitoring, a Methodological Approach to Optimise Knowledge Gathering and Sampling Strategy Nilssen, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds Hawkins, A., Roberts, L., Cheesman, S. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Offshore Marine Renewable Energy Devices as Stepping Stones Across Biogeographical Boundaries Adams, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy Zanuttigh, B., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine O'Carroll, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Strengthening the Role of Science in Marine Governance through Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Wright, G. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Sensitivity of the Mussel Mytilus edulis to Substrate-Borne Vibration in Relation to Anthropogenically Generated Noise Roberts, L., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Use of Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Motion Analysis for Studying the Impacts of Underwater Noise upon Free Ranging Fish and Implications for Marine Energy Management Roberts, L., Perez-Dominguez, R., Elliott, M. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Investigating the Co-Existence of Fisheries and Offshore Renewable Energy in the UK: Identification of a Mitigation Agenda for Fishing Effort Displacement de Groot, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Coordination and Cooperation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy Maier, N. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Practical Management of Cumulative Anthropogenic Impacts with Working Marine Examples Wright, A., Kyhn, L. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Ecosystem
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave N/A N/A
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Experimental Study of the Turbulence Intensity Effects on Marine Current Turbines Behaviour. Part II: Two Interacting Turbines Mycek, P., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Onset of Barotrauma Injuries Related to Number of Pile Driving Strike Exposures in Hybrid Striped Bass Casper, B., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Main Characteristics, Problems, and Prospects for Western European Coastal Seas Dauvin, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Seabirds
Ocean Renewable Energy's Potential Role In Supplying Future Electrical Energy Needs Thresher, R., Musial, W. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Tethys: Developing a Commons for Understanding Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Copping, A., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Energy Sources: A Review of Lifecycle Considerations Amponsah, N., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Special Issue: Renewable Ocean Energy Development and the Environment Zydlewski, G., Copping, A., Redden, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
How Green is 'Green' Energy? Gibson, L., Wilman, E., Laurance, W. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment
Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Marine Renewable Energy Development: Assessing the Benthic Footprint at Multiple Scales Miller, R., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Clean energy that safeguards ecosystems and livelihoods: Integrated assessments to unleash full sustainable potential for renewable energy Athanas, A., McCormick, N. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Public engagement with offshore renewable energy: A critical review Wiersma, B., Devine-Wright, P. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Renewable energy and biodiversity: Implications for transitioning to a Green Economy Gasparatos, A., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
The Costs of Chronic Noise Exposure for Terrestrial Organisms Barber, J., Crooks, K., Fristrup, K. March 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Physical and Numerical Large-Scale Wave Basin Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction and Wave Impact Phenomena Yim, S., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Evaluating habitat, prey, and mesopredator associations in a community of marine birds Goyert, H., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D., Vasileiou, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Spatial targeting, synergies and scale: Exploring the criteria of smart practices for siting renewable energy projects Frantal, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Renewable energy selection for net-zero energy communities: Life cycle based decision making under uncertainty Karunathilake, H., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
The Motus Wildlife Tracking System: a collaborative research network to enhance the understanding of wildlife movement Taylor, P., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Tracking seabirds to identify ecologically important and high risk marine areas in the western North Atlantic Montevecchi, W., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Identifying ecologically important marine areas for seabirds using behavioural information in combination with distribution patterns Camphuysen, K., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
A strategic analysis of tidal current energy conversion systems in the European Union Segura, E., Morales, R., Somolinos, J. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Creation of microhabitats (tidepools) in ripraps with climax communities as a way to mitigate negative effects of artificial substrate on marine biodiversity Ostale-Valriberas, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research Dannheim, J., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Biases in the Literature on Direct Wildlife Mortality from Energy Development Loss, S., Dorning, M., Diffendorfer, J. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The role of maritime spatial planning on the advance of blue energy in the European Union García, P., Sanabria, J., Ruiz, J. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Involving the Public in the Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Portman, M. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Energy droughts from variable renewable energy sources in European climates Raynaud, D., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics

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