Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, EMF Bats
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bat Mortality and Activity at a Northern Iowa Wind Resource Area Jain, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, Displacement Bats
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions Cryan, P., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
How to Mitigate Impacts of Wind Farms on Bats? A Review of Potential Conservation Measures in the European Context Peste, F., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Influence of landscape and time of year on bat-wind turbines collision risks Roemer, C., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
How Ecofriendly are Wind Farms? Cohn, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Lighting Birds
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Avian information systems: Developing web-based bird avoidance models Shamoun-Baranes, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance Birds
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Displacement Birds
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
A Description of the Biosis Model to Assess Risk of Bird Collisions with Wind Turbines Smales, I., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
The Avian Benefits of Wind Energy: A 2009 Update Sovacool, B. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Avian Collision Risk Models for Wind Energy Impact Assessments Masden, E., Cook, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Avian Collisions at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia: Taxonomic and Ecological Characteristics of Colliders Versus Non-Colliders Hull, C., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Bird Collisions with Power Lines: Failing to See the Way Ahead? Martin, G., Shaw, J. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Bird Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility near a Wetland of International Importance Grodsky, S., Jennelle, C., Drake, D. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Collision Risk and Micro-Avoidance Rates of Birds with Wind Turbines in Flanders Everaert, J. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Collision Risk of Birds with Modern Large Wind Turbines Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: Questions, Hypotheses, and Research Needs Wang, S., Wang, S., Smith, P. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds
Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains Johnson, N., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
The Influence of Group Size and Social Interactions on Collision Risk with Obstacles Croft, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The impact of wind energy facilities on grouse: a systematic review Coppes, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Modeling the spatial effects of disturbance: a constructive critique to provide evidence of ecological thresholds Powell, L., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Curtailing Wind Turbine Operations to Reduce Avian Mortality Singh, K., Baker, E., Lackner, M. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Passerines
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Seabirds as samplers of the marine environment - a case study of northern gannets Garthe, S., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds
A Test for Bias Attributable to Seabird Avoidance of Ships during Surveys Conducted in the Tropical Pacific Borberg, J., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Avoidance Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds
Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: insights from Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies Thaxter, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Flight Height Distribution and Collision Risk of the Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus Marmoratus: Methodology and Preliminary Results Stumpf, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) Avoid Wind-energy Turbines in Agricultural Fields in Indiana During Spring Migration? Homoya, W., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Shorebirds
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts of wind turbines on redheads in the Laguna Madre Lange, C., Ballard, B., Collins, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Waterfowl
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C., Holland, K., Papastamatiou, Y. December 2004 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Avoidance, EMF Fish
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance Fish
Functional and structural responses to marine urbanisation Mayer-Pinto, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance Invertebrates
Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals

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