Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Estimating Enhancement of Fish Production by Offshore Artificial Reefs: Uncertainty Exhibited by Divergent Scenarios Powers, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
Birds and Windfarms - Critical Analysis of 4 Reports on Bird Mortality at Windfarm Sites Durchamp, M. December 2003 Website Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ecological Functions and Adaptations of the Elasmobranch Electrosense Tricas, T., Sisneros, J. January 2004 Book Chapter N/A EMF Fish
Bat Deaths and Wind Turbines - A Review of Current Knowledge, and of the Information Available in the Database for Germany Durr, T., Bach, L. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Management of the Territory: Wind Farms in Regione Liguria Solari, P., Minervini, G. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
A Comparison of Nocturnal Call Counts of Migrating Birds and Reflectivity Measurements on Doppler Radar Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Blaricom, D. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Large Whale Ship Strike Database Jensen, A., Silber, G. January 2004 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Problems and Benefits Associated with the Development of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device N/A
Recording Foraging Seabirds at Sea: Standardised Recording and Coding of Foraging Behaviour and Multi-Species Foraging Associations Camphuysen, K., Garthe, S. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Lot 5 Marine Birds in and Around the Future Sites Nearshore Windfarm (NSW) and Q7 Leopold, M., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Power Connections for Offshore Wind Farms Schachner, J. January 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Passerines
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Avian mortality associated with the Top of Iowa Wind Farm: Progress Report, Calendar Year 2003 Koford, R., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
An Assessment of Potential Collision Mortality of Migrating Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) Traversing Between Caves Johnson, G., Strickland, M. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Proceedings: Bats and Wind Power Generation Technical Workshop Energetics April 2004 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Baseline Avian Studies Mount Storm Wind Power Project, Grant County, West Virginia Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy & the Threat to Bats Tuttle, M. July 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Comparison of Energy Systems Using Life Cycle Assessment World Energy Council July 2004 Report Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Invertebrates List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Behaviour Of Trout (Salmo Trutta L.) Larvae And Fry In A Constant Magnetic Field Formicki, K., et al. July 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Analysis of Potential Wildlife/Wind Plant Interactions Bighorn Site, Klickitat County, Washington Johnson, G., Erickson, W. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996 - May 27, 1998 Anderson, R., et al. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Fish and Marine Mammal Audiograms: A summary of available information Nedwell, J., et al. September 2004 Report N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Holberg Wind Energy Assessment Report British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Nocturnal Bird Migration in Northeastern Oregon and Southeastern Washington Mabee, T., Cooper, B. October 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
The Offshore-Ring: A New System Design for the Open Ocean Aquaculture of Macroalgae Buck, B., Buchholz, C. October 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Effects of Wind Farms on Birds Langston, R., Pullan, J. November 2004 Book Wind Energy general N/A Birds
A Review of Approaches for Classifying Benthic Habitats and Evaluating Habitat Quality Diaza, R., Solan, M., Valente, R. November 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies: Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Jungbluth, N., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Influence Of Large-Scale Wind Power On Global Climate Keith, D., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Ecology and Demography of Bicknell's Thrush on East Mountain, East Haven, Vermont: Evaluating Potential Impacts of Wind Turbine Construction Rimmer, C., Faccio, S. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C., Holland, K., Papastamatiou, Y. December 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Environmental Impact Assessment for Andmyran wind farm in Andøy, Nordland Bjerke, J., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Assessment And Prediction Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Energy Facilities In The Southeastern United States Nicholson, C., et al. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Bird Abundance: Systematic Review Stewart, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Weight of Evidence: A Review of Concept and Methods Weed, D. January 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Environmental Assessment Studies on wind turbines and bat populations - a step towards best practice guidelines N/A January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Magnetic Orientation and Navigation in Marine Turtles, Lobsters, and Molluscs: Concepts and Conundrums Cain, S., et al. January 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Sea Turtles
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects National Research Council January 2005 Book N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement

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