Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Measured and Calculated Characteristics of Wind Turbine Noise Greene, G. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Noise Generation of Upwind Rotor Wind Turbine Generators Spencer, R. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
GE MOD-1 Noise Study Wells, R. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Noise Measurements for Single and Multiple Operation of 50-kW Wind Turbine Generators Hubbard, H., Shepherd, K. February 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation Kelley, N., Hemphill, R., McKenna, H. May 1982 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Method for Predicting Impulsive Noise Generated by Wind Turbine Rotors Viterna, L. May 1982 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Acoustic Noise Associated with the MOD-1 Wind Turbine: Its Source, Impact, and Control Kelley, N., et al. February 1985 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Prediction of Far Field Noise from Wind Energy Farms Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Noise Measurements and Analysis: Offshore Pile-Driving Underwater and Above-Water Ødegaard and Danneskiold-Samsøe October 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Socio-economics
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general Noise Birds
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Evaluation of Wind Turbine Noise DeGagne, D., Lewis, A., May, C. September 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Measurement of Underwater Noise During Piling at the Red Funnel Terminal, Southampton, and Observation of its Affect on Caged Fish Nedwell, J., et al. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Hearing in Fish and their Reactions to Sounds from Offshore Wind Farms Wahlberg, M., Westerberg, H. March 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The MINOS Project: Ecological Assessments of Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Projects Kellermann, A., Eskildsen, K., Frank, B. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Wind Turbine Noise - An Overview Bastasch, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Environmental Noise Assessment of Wind Farms Lightstone, A. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Recent Developments in Environmental Assessment Methods for Wind Turbine Noise Howe, B., McCabe, N. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
Acoustic and Geophysical Measurement of Infrasound from Wind Farm Turbines Hepburn, H. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Farm Noise Assessment in Australia and Model Comparison Tickell, C. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Perception of Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals by a Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Presence of Simulated Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Lucke, K., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Fish Thomsen, F., et al. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise Elmer, K., et al. February 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Measurement of the Underwater Radiated Noise from Marine Piling Including Characterisation of a "Soft Start" Period Robinson, S., Lepper, P., Ablitt, J. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Assessment of the Potential for Acoustic Deterrents to Mitigate the Impact on Marine Mammals of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Gordon, J., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Humans National Research Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Assessment and Costs of Potential Engineering Solutions for the Mitigation of the Impacts of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Nehls, G., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Noise and Meteorological Influences Ramakrishnan, R., Sylvestre-Williams, N. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single-tone Frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Behavioural Reactions of Cod (Gadus morhua) and Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) to Sound Resembling Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Mueller, C. December 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Measurement and Interpretation of Underwater Noise During Construction and Operation of Offshore Windfarms in UK Waters Nedwell, J., et al. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Underwater Noise from Construction and Operation of Offshore Wind Farms Tougaard, J., Madsen, P., Wahlberg, M. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Too loud to talk?: Do wind turbine-related sounds affect harbour seal communication? Lucke, K., et al. March 2008 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Measurement of Wind Turbine Construction Noise at Horns Rev II Betke, K. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Measurements of Construction Noise During Pile Driving of Offshore Research Platforms and Wind Farms Matuschek, R., Betke, K. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Pile Driving Zone of Responsiveness Extends Beyond 20 km for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)) Tougaard, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds - Masking, Propagation and Modeling Bolin, K. April 2009 Thesis Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Seasonal Distribution Of Harbour Porpoises And Possible Interference Of Offshore Wind Farms In The German North Sea Gilles, A., Scheidat, M., Siebert, U. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Investigations into the effects of pile driving at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev II and the FINO III research platform Brandt, M., Diederichs, A., Nehls, G. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
An Investigation of the Wind Induced Background Sound Levels in Rural Areas for Existing and Proposed Wind Farms Bonsma, I., Munro, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics

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