Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article N/A Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Urban Structures as Marine Habitats: An Experimental Comparison of the Composition and Abundance of Subtidal Epibiota Among Pilings, Pontoons and Rocky Reefs Connell, S. August 2001 Journal Article N/A Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Ecosystem Consequences of Sediment Disturbance Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) March 2005 Report N/A Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Proceedings of Wind Energy and Wildlife: The Good, the Bad... the Possible Kathy, B., MacGregor, G., Grodner, S. May 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Marine ALSF Science Review: Aggregate Research in UK Waters Newell, R., Reeds, K. June 2005 Presentation N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ecological Baseline Studies Report Proposed Dry Lake Wind Project, Navajo County, Arizona Young, D. Jr., Poulton, V., Bay, K. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem
Populationsdynamik von kommerziell genutzten Fischarten in (durch Offshore- Windkraftanlagen) veränderter Ökosystemstruktur Diembeck, D. January 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
The Main Characteristics, Problems, and Prospects for Western European Coastal Seas Dauvin, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Ecological Risk as a Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. February 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on the Plant Diversity of Blanket Bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain) Fraga, M., et al. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem
State of the Nation's de Facto Marine Protected Areas Grober-Dunsmore, R., et al. May 2008 Report Marine Energy general N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Development: Macrobenthic Ecology Study - 2007 Emu June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem
The Importance of Marine Spatial Planning in Advancing Ecosystem-Based Sea Use Management Douvere, F. September 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The use of 'ecological risk' for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Threats to Sandy Beach Ecosystems: A Review Defeo, O., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Fishing
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Positive Planning for Onshore Wind Expanding Onshore Wind Energy Capacity while Conserving Nature Bowyer, C., et al. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem
Offshore and Coastal Renewable Energy: Potential Ecological Benefits and Impacts of Large-scale Offshore and Coastal Renewable Energy Projects Linley, A., et al. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general N/A Ecosystem
Spatial and Seasonal Relationships Between Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) and their Prey, at Multiple Scales Grigg, E., et al. July 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ecosystem Based Modeling and Indication of Ecological Integrity in the German North Sea - Case Study Offshore Wind Parks Burkhard, B., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America McDonald, R., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Preliminary Flora and Fauna Assessment - Penshurst Wind Farm McMahon, A., Marr, R. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Predicting the trends of vertebrate species richness as a response to wind farms installation in mountain ecosystems of northwest Portugal Santos, M., et al. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design Khangaonkar, T., Yang, Z. March 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
State of the Science: An Assessment of Research on the Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy in the Great Lakes Region Hinderer, J., et al. October 2011 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Greening the Wind: Environmental and Social Considerations for Wind Power Development Ledec, G., Rapp, K., Aiello, R. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Ocean Acidification-Induced Food Quality Deterioration Constrains Trophic Transfer Rossoll, D., et al. April 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Offshore Wind Power Reef Effects and Reef Fauna Roles Krone, R. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potentials of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Assessing Ecosystem Services Busch, M., et al. October 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms, New Players in Marine Ecosystems Lindeboom, H. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Beipiao Wind Power Development Planning on Local Birds Ecosystem Wang, L., Jinghai, Z., Zhongqiang, M. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Representing the Acquisition and Use of Energy by Individuals in Agent-Based Models of Animal Populations Sibly, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Clean energy that safeguards ecosystems and livelihoods: Integrated assessments to unleash full sustainable potential for renewable energy Athanas, A., McCormick, N. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Effects of Offshore Windfarms on Marine Wildlife - A Synthesis for Swedish Waters Bergström, L., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Evaluating Tradeoffs Among Ecosystem Services to Inform Marine Spatial Planning Lester, S., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Ecosystems: A Review Taking an Ecosystem Services Perspective Mangi, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Challenges and opportunities for animal conservation from renewable energy development Katzner, T., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Ecosystem
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Comparing the Ecological Impacts of Wind and Oil and Gas Development: A Landscape Scale Assessment Jones, N., Pejchar, L. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Survival of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens Winder, V., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
A Review of the Impacts of Onshore Wind Energy Development on Biodiversity Tosh, D., Montgomery, W., Reid, N. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem
Offshore Marine Renewable Energy Devices as Stepping Stones Across Biogeographical Boundaries Adams, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on pelagic fish Krägefsky, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Fish
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fishes at Offshore Wind Farms: A Synthesis of 4 Years of Research Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
The potential of offshore windfarms to act as marine protected areas – A systematic review of current evidence Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Review of Environmental Data Associated with Post-Consent Monitoring of Licence Conditions of Offshore Wind Farms Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing Marine Ecosystem Acoustic Diversity Across Ocean Basins Parks, S., Miksis-Olds, J., Denes, S. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
EcoSpatial Information Database: U.S. Atlantic Region Madsen, K., et al. May 2014 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish
Similar Diversity-Disturbance Responses to Different Physical Impacts: Three Cases of Small-Scale Biodiversity Increase in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Biodiversity Offsets for Offshore Wind Farm Projects: The Current Situation in Europe Vaissière, A., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Ecosystem
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Eco-Maintenance for Complex Systems: Application on System of Renewable Energy Production Tchertchian, N., Millet, D. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
The Influence of Large Offshore Wind Farms on the North Sea and Baltic Sea - A Comprehensive Literature Review Clark, S., Schroeder, F., Baschek, B. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Multiple Stressors and Multifunctionality: Limited Effects on an Illuminated Benthic System Alsterberg, C., Sundbäck, K., Gamfeldt, L. December 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwestern Baltic Sea: A Model Study of Regional Impacts on Oxygen Conditions Janßen, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Planning for Net Biodiversity Gains: A Case Study of Hau_uru m_ raki Wind Farm, New Zealand Craig, J., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem

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