Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Whales entangled in deep sea cables Heezen, B. January 1957 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
A Review of Killer Whale Interactions with Other Marine Mammals: Predation to Co-existence Jefferson, T., Stacey, P., Baird, R. December 1991 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article N/A EMF Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs Ocean Studies Board January 1994 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Influences of Man-Made Noise and Other Human Actions on Cetacean Behaviour Richardson, W., Würsig, B. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Locomotor design of dolphin vertebral columns: bending mechanics and morphology of Delphinus delphis Long, J., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimating Harbour Seal Abundance and Status in an Estuarine Habitat in North-East Scotland Thompson, P., et al. February 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Using Geographic Information Systems to Predict North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Habitat Moses, E., Finn, J. December 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Calculating Limits to the Allowable Human-Caused Mortality of Cetaceans and Pinnipeds Wade, P. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Evidence for Infanticide in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Explanation for Violent Interactions with Harbour Porpoises? Patterson, I., et al. July 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Escape Responses of Hauled out Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida) to Aircraft Disturbance Born, E., et al. February 1999 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Variability in Reactions of Pacific Harbor Seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, to Disturbance Suryan, R., Harvey, J. May 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Geographical Variation in Temporal and Spatial Vocalization Patterns of Male Harbour Seals in the Mating Season Van Parijs, S., Hastie, G., Thompson, P. December 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling Würsig, B., Greene, C., Jefferson, T. February 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Masking in Three Pinnipeds: Underwater, Low-Frequency Critical Ratios Southall, B., Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. June 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Mortality and Serious Injury of Northern Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean Knowlton, A., Kraus, S. January 2001 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Small Cetacean Tag Design and Attachment Durations: A Bioengineering Approach Hanson, M. May 2001 Thesis N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Hydrodynamic Trail-Following in Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) Dehnhardt, G., et al. July 2001 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Skin Density and Its Influence on Buoyancy in the Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), Harbor Porpoise (Phocoenca phocoena), and Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops trucnatus) Kipps, E., et al. July 2002 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of the Sound Generated by an Acoustic Harassment Device on the Relative Abundance and Distribution of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia Olesiuk, P., et al. October 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
The Effect of Acoustic Harassment Devices on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Bay of Fundy, Canada Johnston, D. November 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Digital Acoustic Recording Tag for Measuring the Response of Wild Marine Mammals to Sound Johnson, M., Tyack, P. January 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Large Whale Ship Strike Database Jensen, A., Silber, G. January 2004 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Fish and Marine Mammal Audiograms: A summary of available information Nedwell, J., et al. September 2004 Report N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects National Research Council January 2005 Book N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Some Examples of Marine Mammal 'Discomfort Thresholds' in Relation to Man-Made Noise Verboom, W., Kastelein, R. January 2005 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Underwater Data Transmission Sounds on the Displacement Behaviour of Captive Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. April 2005 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Factors Influencing the Diving Behaviour of Fish Eating Killer Whales: Sex Differences and Diel and Interannual Variation in Diving Rates Baird, R., Hanson, M., Dill, L. April 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Fishing Gear Involved in Entanglements of Right and Humpback Whales Johnson, A., et al. October 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Scroby Sands Seal Monitoring: Analysis of the 2005 Post-Construction Aerial Surveys Skeate, E., Perrow, M. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
The MINOS Project: Ecological Assessments of Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Projects Kellermann, A., Eskildsen, K., Frank, B. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Studying Marine Mammal Cognition in the Wild: A Review of Four Decades of Playback Experiments Deecke, V. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Underwater Auditory Localization by a Swimming Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Bodson, A., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Understanding the Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Cox, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mitigating, Monitoring and Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Barlow, J., Gisiner, R. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Final Report on Aerial Monitoring of Seals near Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Techniques for Cetacean-Habitat Modeling Redfern, J., et al. April 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Long-range Effects of Airgun Noise on Marine Mammals: Responses as a Function of Received Sound Level and Distance Bain, D., Williams, R. May 2006 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Final Report on the Effect of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005 - July 2006 Duck, C., et al. August 2006 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Methods Used During Gross Necropsy to Determine Watercraft-Related Mortality in the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) Lightsey, J., et al. September 2006 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Perception of Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals by a Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Presence of Simulated Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Lucke, K., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Do Marine Mammals Experience Stress Related to Anthropogenic Noise? Wright, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Noise and Decision Making Possible Implications of Increases in Anthropogenic Noise for Information Processing in Marine Mammals Bateson, M. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Proceedings of the Effects of Oil on Wildlife: Research, Rehabilitation, and General Concerns Massey, J. January 2007 Conference Paper N/A Chemicals Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics

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