Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device N/A
In situ observations of suspended particulate matter plumes at an offshore wind farm, southern North Sea Baeye, M., Fettweis, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Origins and Migratory Patterns of Bats Killed by Wind Turbines in Southern Alberta: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Baerwald, E., Patterson, W., Barclay, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Prairie Winds: Migrating Bats & Wind Energy in Canada Baerwald, E. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Resolving Conflicts Between Endangered Species Conservation and Renewable Energy Siting: Wiggle Room for Renewables? Badichek, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
Spectral Density of Polarimetric Variables Separating Biological Scatters in the VAD Display Bachmann, S., Zrnić, D. July 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Study on Australian Energy Policy, Socio-Economic, and Environment Issues Azad, A., et al. December 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Use of Multiple Orientation Cues by Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta Avens, L., Lohmann, K. August 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Do migrating birds avoid offshore wind turbines? A method to investigate and analyze reactions of diurnally migrating birds to offshore wind farms Aumuller, R., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Demography of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Unfragmented Grasslands in Kansas Augustine, J., Sandercock, B. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Clean energy that safeguards ecosystems and livelihoods: Integrated assessments to unleash full sustainable potential for renewable energy Athanas, A., McCormick, N. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Potential of Offshore Wind Farms to Act as Marine Protected Areas Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The potential of offshore windfarms to act as marine protected areas – A systematic review of current evidence Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Corrigendum: Environmental Implications of Large-Scale Adoption of Wind Power: A Scenario-Based Life Cycle Assessment Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Mitigating Wind Energy Impacts on Wildlife: Approaches for Multiple Taxa Arnett, E., May, R. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Altering Turbine Speed Reduces Bat Mortality at Wind-Energy Facilities Arnett, E., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Preliminary Evaluation on the Use of Dogs to Recover Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Arnett, E. December 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
A comparison of supervised learning techniques in the classification of bat echolocation calls Armitage, D., Ober, H. November 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Estimation of bird fatalities caused by wind turbines in Turkey Arikan, K., Turan, S. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Fish Assemblages on Sunken Vessels and Natural Reefs in Southeast Florida, USA Arena, P., Jordan, L., Spieler, R. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Energy Performances and Life Cycle Assessment of an Italian Wind Farm Ardente, F., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The VERTEX field campaign: observations of near-ground effects of wind turbine wakes Archer, C., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow N/A
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Barbastelle bats in a wind farm: are they at risk? Apoznanski, G., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Do Black-naped Hares Lepus nigricollis (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae) have synanthropic association with wind farms? Anoop, V., Arun, P., Jaypal, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Low-Frequency Sounds Induce Acoustic Trauma in Cephalopods André, M., et al. November 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Semi-Automatic Long-Term Acoustic Surveying: A Case Study with Bats Andreassen, T., Surlykke, A., Hallam, J. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Fish And Sessile Assemblages Associated With Wind-turbine Constructions In The Baltic Sea Andersson, M., Öhman, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single-tone Frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Swimming behavior of roach (rutilus rutilus) and three-spined stickleback (gasterosteus aculeatus) in response to wind power noise and single-tone frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Behavioural Responses of Harbour Seals to Human-Induced Disturbances Andersen, S., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Energy Sources: A Review of Lifecycle Considerations Amponsah, N., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Factors Influencing Bat Activity and Mortality at a Wind Farm in the Mediterranean Region Amorim, F., Rebelo, H., Rodrigues, L. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Using conjoint analysis to quantify public preferences over the environmental impacts of wind farms. An example from Spain Alvarez-Farizo, B., Hanley, N. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Managing coexistence for bats and wind turbines Alvarez-Castaneda, T., Lidicker, W. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Multiple Stressors and Multifunctionality: Limited Effects on an Illuminated Benthic System Alsterberg, C., Sundbäck, K., Gamfeldt, L. December 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Comprehensive life cycle assessment of large wind turbines in the US Alsaleh, A., Sattler, M. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Preliminary survey of avifauna around wind farm of Jangi region, Kutch District, Gujarat, India Ali, A., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Social & Economic Data
Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects Alerstam, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sourced Electric Production for the Province of Sinop/Turkey Alcan, Y. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Simulation Of Wave Damping Near Coast Due To Offshore Wind Farms Alari, V., Raudsepp, U. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow N/A
Hybrid Renewable Energy System with Minimum Noise Wind Turbine Al-Hamidi, H., Asfar, J. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Life Cycle Assessment of Dernah (Libya) wind farm Al-Behadili, S., El-Osta, W. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds: The Case Study of Lebanon Al Zohbi, G., Hendrick, P., Bouillard, P. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Wind power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities Aitken, M. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Corridors for aliens but not for natives: effects of marine urban sprawl at a regional scale Airoldi, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Predicting Spatial Patterns of Eagle Migration using a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model: A Case Study Associated with a Mountain-Ridge Wind Development Ainslie, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Seabird Flight Behavior and Height in Response to Altered Wind Strength and Direction Ainley, D., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
The influence of stakeholder groups in operation and maintenance services of offshore wind farms: Lesson from Denmark Ahsan, D., Pederson, S. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Behavior of Scandinavian Bats During Migration and Foraging at Sea Ahlén, I., Baagøe, H., Bach, L. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Migratory behaviour of bats at south Swedish coasts Ahlén, I. March 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Wind turbines cause chronic stress in badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain Agnew, R., Smith, V., Fowkes, R. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Terrestrial Mammals
Nest-Guarding by Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind-Energy Facility Near Palm Springs, California Agha, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA) Agha, M., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Mammalian Mesocarnivore Visitation at Tortoise Burrows in a Wind Farm Agha, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Noise Reptiles, Terrestrial Mammals
On the Potential Impact of Lake Erie Wind Farms on Water Temperatures and Mixed‐Layer Depths: Some Preliminary 1‐D Modeling Using COHERENS Afsharian, S., Taylor, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Water Quality
Are We Missing the Boat? Current Uses of Long-Term Biological Monitoring Data in the Evaluation and Management of Marine Protected Areas Addison, P., Flander, L., Cook, C. February 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A New Wave of Marine Evidence-Based Management: Emerging Challenges and Solutions to Transform Monitoring, Evaluating, and Reporting Addison, P., et al. December 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Assemblage Structure of Fish Associated to Fish Aggregation Devices in the Western Mediterranean Addis, P., et al. May 2006 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Offshore Marine Renewable Energy Devices as Stepping Stones Across Biogeographical Boundaries Adams, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Effect of anthropogenic light on bird movement, habitat selection, and distribution: A systematic map protocol Adams, C., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds
Identifying Peaks in Bat Activity: A New Application of SaTScan Adams, A., Fenton, M. June 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Do you hear what I hear? Implications of detector selection for acoustic monitoring of bats Adams, A., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Decision Support Requirements for Wind Farm Placement Planning in Alberta Adagha, O., Carpendale, S., Levy, R. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
The Flight Behaviour of Individual Passerine Nocturnal Migrants: A Tracking Radar Study Able, K. November 1977 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of a Wind Farm in Central Greece during its Life Cycle Abeliotis, K., Pactiti, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Impact of Wind-Energy Generation on Climate: A Rising Spectre Abbasi, S., Abbasi, T., Abbasi, T. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Likely Adverse Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources Abbasi, S., Abbasi, N. April 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A

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