Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Spatial Distribution of the European Hamster Łopucki, R., Perzanowski, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Wind farms in the Icelandic highlands: Attitudes of local residents and tourism service providers Ólafsdóttir, R., Sæþórsdóttir, A. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Special Issue: Renewable Ocean Energy Development and the Environment Zydlewski, G., Copping, A., Redden, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Impact of Wind Power Plants on Black Grouse, Lyrurus tetrix in Alpine Regions Zeiler, H., Grunschachner-Berger, V. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park Territory, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2012, and Analysis of Potential Impact after Three Years' Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
2011 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Estimating the Potential Mortality of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Due to Wind Energy Development on the Island of Crete (Greece) Xirouchakis, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Cod and Sole Behaviour in an Offshore Wind Farm Winter, E., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Fish
Vogels en windturbines (Birds and windturbines) Winkelman, J. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Survival of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens Winder, V., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Space use by Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Response to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bats are not birds and other problems with Sovacool's (2009) analysis of animal fatalities due to electricity generation Willis, C., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report N/A Static Device Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects of High-Relief Structures on Cold Temperate Fish Assemblages: A field Experiment Wilhelmsson, D., Yahya, S., Öhman, M. August 2006 Journal Article N/A Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Flatfish habitat use near North America's first offshore wind farm Wilber, D., Carey, D., Griffin, M. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
The Efficacy of Midwater Artificial Structures for Attracting Pelagic Sport Fish Wickham, D., Watson, J. Jr., Ogren, L. January 1973 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
Long-Term Dynamics of Fouling Communities Found on Offshore Installations in the North Sea Whomersley, P., Picken, G. October 2003 Journal Article N/A Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Landscape Level Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M. December 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: A calculus method for synthesizing choice experiments studies Wen, C., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Research and Guidance on Restoration and Decommissioning of Onshore Wind Farms Welstead, J., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities Weller, T., Baldwin, J. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Winter Resource Selection by Mule Deer on the Wyoming-Colorado Border Prior to Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Spatial Ecology of Female Mule Deer in an Area Proposed for Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Home Range and Resource Selection by GPS-Monitored Adult Golden Eagles in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion: Implications for Wind Power Development Watson, J., Duff, A., Davies, R. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Beipiao Wind Power Development Planning on Local Birds Ecosystem Wang, L., Jinghai, Z., Zhongqiang, M. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Can the effect of tall structures on birds be isolated from other aspects of development? Walters, K., Kosciuch, K., Jones, J. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Response of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus) to Wind-power Development Walter, W., Leslie, D., Jenks, J. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Petroleum Production Platforms as Sites for the Expansion of Ciguatera in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Villareal, T., et al. February 2007 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
GIS-based wind farm site selection using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA): Evaluating the case for New York State van Haaren, R., Fthenakis, V. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity van der Stap, T., Coolen, J., Lindeboom, H. January 2016 Journal Article N/A Static Device Invertebrates
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Whooping Cranes and Wind Development - An Issue Paper US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1 Land-based Wind Energy US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
A Review of the Impacts of Onshore Wind Energy Development on Biodiversity Tosh, D., Montgomery, W., Reid, N. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem
Challenges of decommissioning offshore wind farms: Overview of the European experience Topham, E., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Terrestrial Mammals
Characterizing the first wave of fish and invertebrate colonization on a new offshore petroleum platform Todd, V., et al. May 2019 Journal Article N/A Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Lalamilo Wind Farm Repowering Project: Draft Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds

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