Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
A Large-Scale, Multispecies Assessment of Avian Mortality Rates at Land-Based Wind Turbines in Northern Germany Grunkorn, T., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
A Pioneer in Transition: Horizon Scanning of Emerging Issues in Germany's Sustainable Wind Energy Development Köppel, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic Techniques for Wind Turbine Blade Monitoring Burnham, K., Pierce, S. September 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Adaptive Management and Ecological Restoration Murray, C., Marmorek, D. May 2003 Book Chapter N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
An Overview on Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Collision Risk in Wind Farms Rodrigues, S., Rosa, L., Mascarenhas, M. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Artificial Habitats for Marine and Freshwater Fisheries Seaman, W. Jr. October 1991 Book Chapter N/A Static Device Fish
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Raptors
Bat Activity at Nacelle Height Over Forest Reers, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Behavioural Observations of White-Tailed Sea Eagles in the Vicinity of Wind Turbines Grunkorn, T., et al. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Calculation of the Probability of a Collision of Territorial Birds of Prey with Wind Turbines Rasran, L., Grajetzky, B., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Camera-Trapping Versus Conventional Methodology in the Assessment of Carcass Persistence for Fatality Estimation at Wind Farms Rosa, L., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies Booth, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Changing Coasts: Marine Aliens and Artificial Structures Mineur, F., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Collision Victims and Lattice Towers - Frequency of Collision, Breeding Population and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Two Wind Farms in Brandenburg Durr, T., Rasran, L. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collisions of Birds of Prey with Wind Turbines - Analysis of the Circumstances Rasran, L., Durr, T. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Comparing Field Methods Used to Determine Bird and Bat Fatalities Paula, J., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Compatibility of offshore energy installations with marine protected areas Thurstan, R., Yates, K., O'Leary, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Conclusions, Risk Assessment, Conflict Minimisation, Practical Recommendations, Need for Further Research Hötker, H., et al. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Conservation and management issues for the Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest National Park Catsadorakis, G., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Conservation features: Sensitive species and habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone Krause, J. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Cumulative impacts of offshore windfarms Damian, H., Merck, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Current situation of offshore development in Germany and environmentally sound expansion of offshore wind energy van Leusen, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Debris in Deep Water Angiolillo, M. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A N/A
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Distances Between Breeding Sites and White-Tailed Sea Eagles Found Dead Near Wind Turbines in Schleswig-Holstein Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Echolocation in Marine Mammals Au, W., Hastings, M. January 2008 Book Chapter N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Functions and Adaptations of the Elasmobranch Electrosense Tricas, T., Sisneros, J. January 2004 Book Chapter N/A EMF Fish
Ecological Impact of Airborne Wind Energy Technology: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Agenda Bruinzeel, L., et al. April 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Organisms Bochert, R., Zettler, M. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Effects of Individuals Lost Due to Wind Turbines on the Time of Occupying a Territory, the Survival of Breeding Territories and the Breeding Success of White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Case Studies) Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on distribution patterns, behaviour and flight heights of seabirds Mendel, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on pelagic fish Krägefsky, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Fish
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Lighting, Noise N/A
Environmental and Structural Safety Issues Related to Wind Energy Dai, K., Gao, K., Huang, Z. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Environmental Effects of Marine Transportation Walker, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Navigation
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods: An Overview of the Process for Wind Farms’ Different Phases - From Pre-construction to Operation Santos, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Environmental implications of offshore energy Gill, A., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: From Formula-Based Methods to Models to Assess Impact Significance Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Estimating the Potential Mortality of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Due to Wind Energy Development on the Island of Crete (Greece) Xirouchakis, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Exploitation of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Far-Field and Near-Field Effects of Marine Aquaculture Weitzman, J., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Fencing in the bay? Place attachment, social representations of energy technologies and the protection of restorative environments Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Future Research Directions to Reconcile Wind Turbine - Wildlife Interactions May, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Global Status of Coral Reefs: In Combination, Disturbances and Stressors Become Ratchets Birkeland, C. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Global Wind Energy Policy and Development Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Impacts of On-shore Wind Farms in Wildlife Communities: Direct Fatalities and Indirect Impacts (Behavioural and Habitat Effects) Pereira, P., Salgueiro, N., Mesquita, S. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation Arnett, E., Baerwald, E. July 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Wildlife: Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Science, Management, and Policy Arnett, E. May 2012 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in North Frisia Rasran, L., Thomsen, K. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in the Hellweg Börde, North Rhine-Westphalia Joest, R., Griesenbrock, B., Illner, H. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Humans National Research Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Influences of Artificial Light on Marine Birds Montevecchi, W. January 2006 Book Chapter N/A Lighting Birds, Seabirds
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Introducing a New Avian Sensitivity Mapping Tool to Support the Siting of Wind Farms and Power Lines in the Middle East and Northeast Africa Allinson, T. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Is There a State-of-the-Art to Reduce Pile-Driving Noise? Bellmann, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Key Learnings from Ten Years of Monitoring and Management Interventions at the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms: Results of a Review Sims, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Less for More: The Rube Goldberg Nature of Industrial Wind Development Boone, J. December 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Lost in Bias? Multifaceted Discourses Framing the Communication of Wind and Wildlife Research Results: The PROGRESS Case Weber, J., Biehl, J., Köppel, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind N/A Legal and Policy
Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs Ocean Studies Board January 1994 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Marine habitat modelling for harbour porpoises in the German Bight Skov, H., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Marine mammals and windfarms: Effects of alpha ventus on harbour porpoises Dähne, M., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Oil Spills—Oil Pollution, Sources and Effects Zhang, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A Chemicals N/A
Marine Oil Spills—Preparedness and Countermeasures Chen, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A Chemicals N/A
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Protected Areas: Attempting the Sustainability of the Seas Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy and Environmental Interactions: Baseline Assessments of Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles and Benthic Communities on the Oregon Shelf Henkel, S., Suryan, R., Lagerquist, B. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Marine Spatial Planning Santos, C., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine spatial planning and stakeholder collaboration Brooks, P., Jedele, T. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Meteorological and Hydrological Effect of Wind Farm in Arid Areas Yin, R., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem
Mitigating Bat Mortality with Turbine-Specific Curtailment Algorithms: A Model Based Approach Behr, O., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals

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