Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Predicting bird collisions with wind turbines: Comparison of the new empirical Flux Collision Model with the SOSS Band model Kleyheeg-Hartman, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The mechanics of blue growth: Management of oceanic natural resource use with multiple, interacting sectors Klinger, D., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Incidence and Management of Live and Injured Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Klug, B., Baerwald, E. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Seasonal and Diel Variability of the Underwater Noise in the Baltic Sea Klusek, Z., Lisimenka, A. April 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Health Effects and Wind Turbines: A Review of the Literature Knopper, L., Ollson, C. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Cable after 8 Years on the Seafloor: Observations, Environmental Impact Kogan, I., et al. April 2006 Journal Article N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat
A Comparison of Perceptions towards Wind Power among Local and Foreign Residents of Jeju Island, South Korea Kojetin, D., Min, K. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Investigation on Design for a 500 W Wind Turbine Composite Blade Considering Impact Damage Kong, C., Choi, S., Park, H. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Mortality estimation from carcass searches using the R-package carcass - a tutorial Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Advances in Sex Determination in Bats and its Utility in Wind-Wildlife Studies Korstian, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Behavioral responses of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) to experimental fishing gear in a coastal environment Kot, B., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A Avoidance Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Potential for Electricity Generation from On-Shore Wind Energy Under the Constraints of Nature Conservation: A Case Study for Two Regions in Germany Krewitt, W., Nitsch, J. August 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Collision Risk of Birds with Modern Large Wind Turbines Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Epifauna Dynamics at an Offshore Foundation - Implications of Future Wind Power Farming in the North Sea Krone, R., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Common Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) Two Years after Deployment - Increased Production Rate of Cancer pagurus Krone, R., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Willingness to pay for renewable energy investment in Korea: A choice experiment study Ku, S., Yoo, S. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Meta-Analysis of Net Energy Return for Wind Power Systems Kubiszewski, I., Cleveland, C., Endres, P. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
International good practices for facilitating transboundary collaboration in Marine Spatial Planning Kull, M., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Fixing wind power's bat problem Kumagai, J. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Input-Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States Kumar, I., Tyner, W., Sinha, K. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Impact of wind turbines on birds: a case study from Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Ali, A., Arun, P. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bat mortality due to collision with wind turbines in Kutch District, Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Samsoor-Ali, A., Arun, P. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind energy: Trends and enabling technologies Kumar, Y., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Wind Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities Kuvlesky, W. Jr., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
A Review of Vessel Traffic and Fishing Activity Standards for Offshore Wind Farm in Domestic Areas Based on the Analysis of Foreign Cases Kwon, Y., Lee, C., Rim, G. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Navigation
From Echolocation Clicks to Animal Density - Acoustic Sampling of Harbor Porpoises with Static Dataloggers Kyhn, L., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Basin-wide contributions to the underwater soundscape by multiple seismic surveys with implications for marine mammals in Baffin Bay, Greenland Kyhn, L., et al. January 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
From identification of compatibilities and conflicts to reaching marine spatial allocation agreements. Review of actions required and relevant tools and processes Kyriazi, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Cautious but Committed: Moving Toward Adaptive Planning and Operation Strategies for Renewable Energy's Wildlife Implications Köppel, J., Dahmen, M., Helfrich, J. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Socio-economics
Research frontiers in sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems in a time of climate crisis Kılkış, Ş., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Globalization in the wind energy industry: contribution and economic impact of European companies Lacal-Arántegui, R. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
The Multi-Use In Wind Farm Projects: More Conflicts Or A Win-Win Opportunity? Lacroix, D., Sylvain, P. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
The economics of visual disamenity reductions of offshore wind farms—Review and suggestions from an emerging field Ladenburg, J., Lutzeyer, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Influence of Wind-Produced Noise on Orientation in the Sole (Solea solea) Lagardère, J., et al. January 1994 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Bats in Dutch Offshore Wind Farms in Autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bat Activity in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Fate of Unproductive and Unattractive Habitats: Recent Changes in Iberian Steppes and their Effects on Endangered Avifauna Laiolo, P., Tella, J. October 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Nearfield Habitat
A Bridge Between Oceans: Overland Migration of Marine Birds in a Wind Energy Corridor Lamb, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Public Participation in Wind Energy Projects Located in Germany: Which Form of Participation is the Key to Acceptance? Langer, K., Decker, T., Menrad, K. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Factors influencing citizens' acceptance and non-acceptance of wind energy in Germany Langer, K., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance Fish
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Conference plenary discussion, conclusions and recommendations Langston, R., Fox, A., Drewitt, A. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Potential Wind Park Impacts on Whooper Swans in Winter: The Risk of Collision Larsen, J., Clausen, P. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
A GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Wind Farm Site Selection: A Regional Scale Application in Greece Latinopoulos, D., Kechagia, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Nonlocal Inadvertent Weather Modification Associated with Wind Farms in the Central United States Lauridsen, M., Ancell, B. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Sustainably reconciling offshore renewable energy with Natura 2000 sites: An interim adaptive management framework Le Lièvre, C. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greater sage‐grouse male lek counts relative to a wind energy development LeBeau, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Using Medaka Embryos as a Model System to Study Biological Effects of the Electromagnetic Fields on Development and Behavior Lee, W., Yang, K. October 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Marine Megavertebrates of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly: Relative Abundance and Distribution Leeney, R., et al. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Challenges, Insights and Perspectives Associated with using Social-Ecological Science for Marine Conservation Leenhardt, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics
Use of a High-Resolution Profiling Sonar and a Towed Video Camera to Map a Zostera Marina Bed Lefebvre, A., et al. April 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Wind Farm Facilities in Germany Kill Noctule Bats from Near and Far Lehnert, L., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis occurrence in offshore wind energy areas near Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA Leiter, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Impact of Wind Energy on Wildlife: Synthesis Leopold, B., Hutchins, M. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Reconversion of offshore oil and gas platforms into renewable energy sites production: Assessment of different scenarios Leporini, M., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Life Cycle Assessment
Evaluating Tradeoffs Among Ecosystem Services to Inform Marine Spatial Planning Lester, S., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Underwater noise levels of pile-driving in a New Zealand harbour, and the potential impacts on endangered Hector's dolphins Leunissen, E., Dawson, S. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impact of pile-driving on Hector's dolphin in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Leunissen, E., Rayment, W., Dawson, S. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Modelling the Spatial Concentrations of Bird Migration to Assess Conflicts with Wind Turbines Liechti, F., Guélat, J., Komenda-Zehnder, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The influence of high-voltage power lines on the feelings evoked by different Swiss surroundings Lienert, P., Sütterlin, B., Siegrist, M. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Methods Used During Gross Necropsy to Determine Watercraft-Related Mortality in the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) Lightsey, J., et al. September 2006 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Environmental Noise Assessment of Wind Farms Lightstone, A. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Strategic Impact Management of Wind Power Projects Lima, F., Ferreira, P., Vieira, F. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Overview and trends of ecological and socioeconomic research on artificial reefs Lima, J., Zalmon, I., Love, M. March 2019 Journal Article N/A Attraction Nearfield Habitat
Animal Reactions to Oncoming Vehicles: A Conceptual Review Lima, S., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals

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