Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife Goodale, W., Milman, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Study and Application of Underwater Noise Impact in Coastal Region off Western Taiwan Cheng, Y., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Perceptions of Commercial and Recreational Fishers on the Potential Ecological Impacts of the Block Island Wind Farm (US) ten Brink, T., Dalton, T. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Meeting the Quest for Spatial Efficiency: Progress and Prospects of Extensive Aquaculture within Offshore Wind Farms Buck, B., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Inshore-Offshore Comparison of Parasite Infestation in Mytilus edulis: Implications for Open Ocean Aquaculture Buck, B., et al. April 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms: Modeling Approach, Experimental Setup, and Results Fricke, M., Rolfes, R. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Private Incentives for the Emergence of Co-Production of Offshore Wind Energy and Mussel Aquaculture Griffin, R., Buck, B., Krause, G. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Impact of Secondary Hard Substrate on the Distribution and Abundance of Aurelia aurita in the Western Baltic Sea Janßen, H., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Behavioral Responses of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to Playbacks of Broadband Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
On a Hybrid Model for the Prediction of Pile Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farms Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Eco-Hydro-Acoustic Modeling and its Use as an EIA Tool Rossington, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Impact Hypothesis for Offshore Wind Farms: Explanatory Models for Species Distribution at Extremely Exposed Rocky Areas Schläppy, M., Saskov, A., Dahlgren, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Resolving Fine-Scale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Skov, H., Thomsen, F. December 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The Current State of Offshore Wind Energy Technology Development Sun, X., Huang, D., Wu, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The UK Offshore Wind Power Programme: A Sea-Change in UK Energy Policy? Toke, D. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Lessons from Stakeholder Dialogues on Marine Aquaculture in Offshore Wind Farms: Perceived Potentials, Constraints and Research Gaps Wever, L., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Spatially Explicit Model of Wintering Common Loons: Conservation Implications Winiarski, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The Key Technologies and Development of Offshore Wind Farm in China Wu, J., Wang, Z., Wang, G. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Measuring responses of harbour seals to potential aversive acoustic mitigation signals using controlled exposure behavioural response studies Gordon, J., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Determining the dependence of marine pile driving sound levels on strike energy, pile penetration, and propagation effects using a linear mixed model based on damped cylindrical spreading Martin, S., Barclay, D. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Floating Offshore Turbines Tande, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Leading Edge Erosion of Coated Wind Turbine Blades: Review of Coating Life Models Slot, H., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the North Sea on Fish Communities Stenberg, C., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Precipitation reduction during Hurricane Harvey with simulated offshore wind farms Pan, Y., Yan, C., Archer, C. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Rapid Macrobenthic Recovery after Dredging Activities in an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Multi-Criteria Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures Lozano-Minguez, E., Kolios, A., Brennan, F. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Long Range Propagation Modeling of Offshore Wind Turbine Noise using Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Models Kim, H., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Seabird-Wind Farm Interactions During the Breeding Season Vary Within and Between Years: A Case Study of Lesser Black-Backed Gull Larus fuscus in the UK Thaxter, C., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Computational Method to Predict and Study Underwater Noise due to Pile Driving Schecklman, S., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Impulsive Sounds Change European Seabass Swimming Patterns: Influence of Pulse Repetition Interval Neo, Y., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon in the New York Wind Energy Area: implications of future development in an offshore wind energy site Ingram, E., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Underwater Mach Wave Radiation from Impact Pile Driving: Theory and Observation Reinhall, P., Dahl, P. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Validation of Finite Element Computations for the Quantitative Prediction of Underwater Noise from Impact Pile Driving Zampolli, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwestern Baltic Sea: A Model Study of Regional Impacts on Oxygen Conditions Janßen, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Likelihood of a Marine Vessel Accident from Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
A 30-year projection of the future wind energy resources in the coastal environment of the Black Sea Rusu, E. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Adhesion of Corrosion Protection Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Constructions after Three Years under Offshore Exposure Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Bats in Dutch Offshore Wind Farms in Autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic biodiversity on old platforms, young wind farms, and rocky reefs Coolen, J., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Large-Eddy Simulation of Offshore Wind Farm Yang, D., Meneveau, C., Shen, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Energy: Good Practice in Impact Assessment, Mitigation and Compensation Lüdeke, J. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Kármán vortex and turbulent wake generation by wind park piles Grashorn, S., Stanev, E. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Renewables-to-reefs: Participatory multicriteria decision analysis is required to optimize wind farm decommissioning Fowler, A., Macreadie, P., Booth, D. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life Bray, L., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farm Site Selection Study around Jeju Island, South Korea Kim, T., Park, J., Maeng, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Nocturnal Flight Patterns and Altitudes of Diving Ducks in the IJsselmeer Area Dirksen, S., et al. December 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Positive energies? An empirical study of community energy participation and attitudes to renewable energy Bauwens, T., Devine-Wright, P. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Lack of Sound Science in Assessing Wind Farm Impacts on Seabirds Green, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Visual assessment of off-shore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variables Bishop, I., Miller, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Evaluating the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Bat Activity in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats

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