Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Insect Prey Eaten by Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Prior to Fatal Collisions with Wind Turbines Valdez, E., Cryan, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Another Blown in the Wind: Bats and the Licensing of Wind Farms in Brazil Valença, R., Bernard, E. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Absolute Probability Estimates of Lethal Vessel Strikes to North Atlantic Right Whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf van der Hoop, J., Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. April 2012 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity van der Stap, T., Coolen, J., Lindeboom, H. January 2016 Journal Article N/A Static Device Invertebrates
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
GIS-based wind farm site selection using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA): Evaluating the case for New York State van Haaren, R., Fthenakis, V. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Geographical Variation in Temporal and Spatial Vocalization Patterns of Male Harbour Seals in the Mating Season Van Parijs, S., Hastie, G., Thompson, P. December 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Effect of Wind-Generated Bubbles on Sea-Surface Backscattering at 940 Hz van Vossen, R., Ainslie, M. November 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Application of Isoscapes to Determine Geographic Origin of Terrestrial Wildlife for Conservation and Management Vander Zanden, H., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Vessel Collisions with Whales: The Probability of Lethal Injury Based on Vessel Speed Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Life cycle assessment: A case study of two wind turbines used in Mexico Vargas, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., Whitfield, D., Kati, V. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind N/A Legal and Policy
Determining the Detection Thresholds for Harbor Porpoise Clicks of Autonomous Data Loggers, the Timing Porpoise Detectors Verfuss, U., et al. February 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Comparing methods suitable for monitoring marine mammals in low visibility conditions during seismic surveys Verfuss, U., et al. January 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Petroleum Production Platforms as Sites for the Expansion of Ciguatera in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Villareal, T., et al. February 2007 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Migration of Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and its Variable Annual Risk from Wind Power Facilities Across the Tehuantepec Isthmus Villegas-Patraca, R., Herrera-Alsina, L. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
The Catchment Area of Wind Farms for European Bats: A Plea for International Regulations Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The insectivorous bat Pipistrellus nathusii uses a mixed-fuel strategy to power autumn migration Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Wildlife and Renewable Energy: German Politics Cross Migratory Bats Voigt, C., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Voigt, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats probe the aerosphere during landscape-guided altitudinal flights Voigt, C., Roeleke, M., Bumrungsri, S. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Genetic Approaches to the Conservation of Migratory Bats: A Study of the Eastern Red Bat (Lasiurus borealis) Vonhof, M., Russell, A. May 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Ecosystem
Oil Pollution and Climate have Wide-Scale Impacts on Seabird Demographics Votier, S., et al. November 2005 Journal Article N/A Chemicals Birds, Seabirds
Property Value Impacts of Wind Turbines and the Influence of Attitudes toward Wind Energy Vyn, R. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-Economics
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Calculating Limits to the Allowable Human-Caused Mortality of Cetaceans and Pinnipeds Wade, P. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Life Cycle Assessment of the Offshore Wind Farm Alpha Ventus Wagner, H., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Hearing in Fish and their Reactions to Sounds from Offshore Wind Farms Wahlberg, M., Westerberg, H. March 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
From DNA to ecological performance: Effects of anthropogenic noise on a reef-building mussel Wale, M., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Invertebrates
Noise Negatively Affects Foraging and Antipredator Behaviour in Shore Crabs Wale, M., Simpson, S., Radford, A. July 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Community Benefits, Framing and the Social Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms: An Experimental Study in England Walker, B., Wiersma, B., Bailey, E. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Procedural justice in Canadian wind energy development: A comparison of community-based and technocratic siting processes Walker, C., Baxter, J. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article N/A EMF Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The auditory attributes of Golden Eagles: Do Golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share the same auditory space? Walsh, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Large-Scale Management Experiments and Learning By Doing Walter, C., Holling, C. December 1990 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Determining the local acceptance of wind energy projects in Switzerland: The importance of general attitudes and project characteristics Walter, G. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Human Dimensions
Response of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus) to Wind-power Development Walter, W., Leslie, D., Jenks, J. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Can the effect of tall structures on birds be isolated from other aspects of development? Walters, K., Kosciuch, K., Jones, J. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures Wang, H., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Effects of established offshore wind farms on energy flow of coastal ecosystems: A case study of the Rudong offshore wind farms in China Wang, J., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Effects of Beipiao Wind Power Development Planning on Local Birds Ecosystem Wang, L., Jinghai, Z., Zhongqiang, M. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Life-cycle green-house gas emissions of onshore and offshore wind turbines Wang, S., Wang, S., Jinxiang, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Ecological Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: Questions, Hypotheses, and Research Needs Wang, S., Wang, S., Smith, P. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Water Quality
Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Wang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China Wang, Z., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Soundscape of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) hotspot before windfarm construction in the Pearl River Estuary, China: Do dolphin engage in noise avoidance and passive eavesdropping behavior? Wang, Z., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Re-powering Scotland: Wind Farms and the 'Energy or Environment?' Debate Warren, C., Birnie, R. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Home Range and Resource Selection by GPS-Monitored Adult Golden Eagles in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion: Implications for Wind Power Development Watson, J., Duff, A., Davies, R. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The legislative regime for environment assessment and approval of offshore wind energy developments in England and Wales Wawryk, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
Winter Resource Selection by Mule Deer on the Wyoming-Colorado Border Prior to Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Spatial Ecology of Female Mule Deer in an Area Proposed for Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Weight of Evidence: A Review of Concept and Methods Weed, D. January 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Ocean Noise On Cetaceans And Implications For Management Weilgart, L. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Life cycle assessment of a floating offshore wind turbine Weinzettel, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Co-location opportunities for renewable energies and aquaculture facilities in the Canary Archipelago Weiss, C., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Nocturnal migrants do not incur higher collision risk at wind turbines than diurnally active species Welcker, J., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities Weller, T., Baldwin, J. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed Wellig, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: A calculus method for synthesizing choice experiments studies Wen, C., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Visual Impacts
Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources Wenz, G. May 1962 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Lessons from Stakeholder Dialogues on Marine Aquaculture in Offshore Wind Farms: Perceived Potentials, Constraints and Research Gaps Wever, L., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Male Greater Prairie-Chickens Adjust their Vocalizations in the Presence of Wind Turbine Noise Whalen, C., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of wind turbine noise on the surrounding soundscape in the context of greater-prairie chicken courtship vocalizations Whalen, C., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Evaluation of Mobile Acoustic Techniques for Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Tethys knowledge management system: Working to advance the marine renewable energy industry Whiting, J., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) N/A N/A
North Atlantic Right Whale Distribution and Seasonal Occurrence in Nearshore Waters off New Jersey, USA, and Implications for Management Whitt, A., Dudzinski, K., Laliberté, J. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Long-Term Dynamics of Fouling Communities Found on Offshore Installations in the North Sea Whomersley, P., Picken, G. October 2003 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
The Efficacy of Midwater Artificial Structures for Attracting Pelagic Sport Fish Wickham, D., Watson, J. Jr., Ogren, L. January 1973 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Ecosystem

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