Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996 - May 27, 1998 Anderson, R., et al. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatality at the Casselman Wind Project in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2008 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2010 Arnett, E., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Becker, J., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Baseline Avian Use and Behavior at the CARES Wind Plant Site, Klickitat County, Washington: Final Report Erickson, W., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Conservation Plan for Bats in Wyoming Hester, S., Grenier, M. September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Sørfjord Windpark, Tysfjord Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Arnesen, G., Johnsen, T. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Terrestrial Mammals
Birds and Wind-Energy Best-Practice Guidelines: Best-Practice Guidelines for Assessing and Monitoring the Impact of Wind Energy Facilities on Birds in Southern Africa Jenkins, A., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A bibliography of bat fatality, activity, and interactions with wind turbines Johnson, G., Arnett, E., Hein, C. February 2014 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon Joshi, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change, Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol Morrison, M. November 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Amendment to the On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post- Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio Ohio Department of Natural Resources June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Eagle Owl and Wind Power development at Karmøy, Western Norway Rov, N., Jacobsen, K. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Historical Challenges of Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions: How This May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Bird Mortality at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - September 2001 Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Lalamilo Wind Farm Repowering Project: Draft Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Review of the Impacts of Onshore Wind Energy Development on Biodiversity Tosh, D., Montgomery, W., Reid, N. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Whooping Cranes and Wind Development - An Issue Paper US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
2011 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park Territory, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2012, and Analysis of Potential Impact after Three Years' Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
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