Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part II: Procedures for Measuring Underwater Noise in Connection with Offshore Wind Farm Licensing de Jong, C., Ainslie, M., Blacquière, G. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae de Soto, N., et al. October 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Evaluation of Wind Turbine Noise DeGagne, D., Lewis, A., May, C. September 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Monitoring Guidance for Underwater Noise in European Seas Dekeling, R., et al. May 2013 Report N/A Noise N/A
200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals Deng, Z., et al. April 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general Noise Birds
In Situ Mortality Experiments with Juvenile Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Relation to Impulsive Sound Levels Caused by Pile Driving of Windmill Foundations Dubusschere, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
How Wrong Can You Be? Can a Simple Spreading Formula Be Used to Predict Worst-Case Underwater Sound Levels? Duncan, A., Parsons, M. November 2011 Conference Paper N/A Noise N/A
Evidence of a Lombard Response in Migrating Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) Dunlop, R., Cato, D., Noad, M. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Bubble Curtains Attenuate Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction and Reduce Temporary Habitat Loss for Harbour Porpoises Dähne, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Marine mammals and windfarms: Effects of alpha ventus on harbour porpoises Dähne, M., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species Edmonds, N., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A New Context-Based Approach to Assess Marine Mammal Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Sounds Ellison, W., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Nearfield Habitat
Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise Elmer, K., et al. February 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
New Hydro Sound Dampers to Reduce Piling Underwater Noise Elmer, K., Savery, J. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Installing Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations Quieter: A Performance Overview of the First Full-Scale Demonstration of the AdBm Underwater Noise Abatement System Elzinga, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Effects of Seismic Shooting on Catch and Catch-Availability of Cod and Haddock Engas, A., et al. August 1993 Report N/A Noise Fish
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals Erbe, C., Dunlop, R., Dolman, S. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Communication Masking in Marine Mammals: A Review and Research Strategy Erbe, C., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Boat noise affects the early life history of two damselfishes Fakan, E., McCormick, M. April 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
A GIS-Multicriteria Approach to Analyzing Noise and Visual Impacts of Wind Farms Fang, B. February 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Noise Budgets in Practice Faulkner, R., Merchant, N., Martinez, R. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Assessment of Anthropogenic Noise Sources Using a Field Recording Method Fernandez, A. February 2018 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
School is out on noisy reefs: the effect of boat noise on predator learning and survival of juvenile coral reef fishes Ferrari, M., et al. January 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Auditory Effects of Underwater Noise in Odontocetes Finneran, J. January 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Marine Mammals: A Review of Temporary Threshold Shift Studies from 1996 to 2015 Finneran, J. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Soundscape Analysis and Wildlife Presence in the Vicinity of a Wind Turbine Florentin, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A procedure for deriving wind turbine noise limits by taking into account annoyance Fredianelli, L., Carpita, S., Licitra, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
The influence of wind turbine visibility on the health of local residents: a systematic review Freiberg, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting, Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Socio-economics
Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective Gaydos, J., Thixton, S., Donatuto, J. December 2015 Journal Article N/A Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Navigation
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Seasonal Distribution Of Harbour Porpoises And Possible Interference Of Offshore Wind Farms In The German North Sea Gilles, A., Scheidat, M., Siebert, U. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Potential for Acoustic Deterrents to Mitigate the Impact on Marine Mammals of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Gordon, J., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Measuring responses of harbour seals to potential aversive acoustic mitigation signals using controlled exposure behavioural response studies Gordon, J., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
MR8.1 Tests of Acoustic Signals for Aversive Sound Mitigation with Harbour Seals Gordon, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction Graham, I., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time Graham, I., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Measured and Calculated Characteristics of Wind Turbine Noise Greene, G. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Aversiveness of Sounds in Phocid Seals: Psycho-Physiological Factors, Learning Processes and Motivation Götz, T., Janik, V. January 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
Lost listening area assessment of anthropogenic sounds in the Chukchi Sea Hannay, D., Hatch, L., Harrison, J. November 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Hatch, L., et al. November 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Socio-economics, Navigation
Information gaps in understanding the effects of noise on fishes and invertebrates Hawkins, A., Pembroke, A., Popper, A. March 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Man-Made Sound on Fishes Hawkins, A., Popper, A. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
A Sound Approach to Assessing the Impact of Underwater Noise on Marine Fishes and Invertebrates Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds Hawkins, A., Roberts, L., Cheesman, S. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Sound Propagation Through the Stochastic Ocean Henyey, F. May 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Acoustic and Geophysical Measurement of Infrasound from Wind Farm Turbines Hepburn, H. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
The Effect of Simulated Seal Scarer Sounds on Harbour Porpoises Hermannsen, L., Mikkelsen, L., Tougaard, J. January 2017 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Anthropogenic and natural sources of ambient noise in the ocean Hildebrand, J. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Recent Developments in Environmental Assessment Methods for Wind Turbine Noise Howe, B., McCabe, N. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Noise Measurements for Single and Multiple Operation of 50-kW Wind Turbine Generators Hubbard, H., Shepherd, K. February 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Repeated Elicitation of the Acoustic Startle Reflex Leads to Sensitisation in Subsequent Avoidance Behaviour and Induces Fear Conditioning Janik, V., Götz, T. April 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Vindication of Don Quixote: The Impact of Noise and Visual Pollution from Wind Turbines Jensen, C., Panduro, T., Lundhede, T. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Vessel Noise Effects On Delphinid Communication Jensen, F., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation

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