Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Private Incentives for the Emergence of Co-Production of Offshore Wind Energy and Mussel Aquaculture Griffin, R., Buck, B., Krause, G. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
An ecosystem approach for studying the impact of offshore wind farms: a French case study Pezy, J., Raoux, A., Dauvin, J. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Multi-Use In Wind Farm Projects: More Conflicts Or A Win-Win Opportunity? Lacroix, D., Sylvain, P. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Contributions of marine infrastructures to marine planning and protected area networking Shabtay, A., Portman, M., Carmel, Y. June 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms Causon, P., Gill, A. November 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Offshore Wind Farm Site Selection Study around Jeju Island, South Korea Kim, T., Park, J., Maeng, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
A Conceptual Model to Determine Vulnerability of Wildlife Populations to Offshore Wind Energy Development Goodale, M., Stenhouse, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
The use of 'ecological risk' for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Vitamine ENA: A framework for the development of ecosystem-based indicators for decision makers Safi, G., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Failure Mode Identification and End of Life Scenarios of Offshore Wind Turbines: A Review Luengo, M., Kolios, A. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Human Dimensions
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Changes in European wind energy generation potential within a 1.5 °C warmer world Hosking, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Resolving Conflicts Between Endangered Species Conservation and Renewable Energy Siting: Wiggle Room for Renewables? Badichek, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A review of unmanned vehicles for the detection and monitoring of marine fauna Verfuss, U., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strengthening the Role of Science in Marine Governance through Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Wright, G. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine Renewable Energy in the Mediterranean Sea: Status and Perspectives Soukissian, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Social & Economic Data
Investigating the Co-Existence of Fisheries and Offshore Renewable Energy in the UK: Identification of a Mitigation Agenda for Fishing Effort Displacement de Groot, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
A Review of Vessel Traffic and Fishing Activity Standards for Offshore Wind Farm in Domestic Areas Based on the Analysis of Foreign Cases Kwon, Y., Lee, C., Rim, G. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Navigation
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Social & Economic Data
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Social & Economic Data
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-location opportunities for renewable energies and aquaculture facilities in the Canary Archipelago Weiss, C., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Sustainable use of marine resources through offshore wind and mussel farm co-location Di Tullio, G., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Coordination and Cooperation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy Maier, N. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The UK Offshore Wind Power Programme: A Sea-Change in UK Energy Policy? Toke, D. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Cool Rationalities and Hot Air: A Rhetorical Approach to Understanding Debates on Renewable Energy Barry, J., Ellis, G., Robinson, C. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Over the Sea and Far Away? A Consideration of the Planning, Politics and Public Perception of Offshore Wind Farms Haggett, C. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
The Legal Framework for Offshore Wind Farms: A Critical Analysis of the Consents Process Gibson, E., Howsamn, P. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Perceived Concerns and Possible Management Strategies for Governing 'Wind-Farm Mariculture Integration' Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Smythe, T., McCann, J. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Life cycle cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy under the climatic conditions in Southeast Asia – Setting the bottom-line for deployment Nian, V., Liu, Y., Zhong, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
The Life-Cycle Energy and Environmental Emissions of a Typical Offshore Wind Farm in China Yang, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
A Life Cycle Co-Benefits Assessment of Wind Power in China Xue, B., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Is Marine Spatial Planning Enough to Overcome Biological Data Deficiencies? Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The State of Rhode Island's Pioneering Marine Spatial Plan Olsen, S., McCann, J., Fugate, G. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore wind farm in marine spatial planning and the stakeholders engagement: Opportunities and challenges for Taiwan Zhang, Y., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Navigation
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Navigation
Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms: Modeling Approach, Experimental Setup, and Results Fricke, M., Rolfes, R. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Navigation
Damage analysis of ship collisions with offshore wind turbine foundations Moulas, D., Shafiee, M., Mehmanparast, A. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Human Dimensions, Navigation
Seeing clearly in a virtual reality: Tourist reactions to an offshore wind project Teisl, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Perceptions of Offshore Wind Farms and Community Development: Case Study of Fangyuan Township, Chunghua County, Taiwan Lin, K-J., Hsu, C-P., Liu, H-Y. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Stakeholder Engagement
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Visual Impacts
Local and socio-political acceptance of wind farms in Germany Sonnenberg, M., Ruddat, M. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Individual preferences regarding environmental offset and welfare compensation: a choice experiment application to an offshore wind farm project Kermagoret, C., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Ecosystems: A Review Taking an Ecosystem Services Perspective Mangi, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data

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