Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Telemetric Monitoring of Montagu’s Harrier in Schleswig-Holstein Grajetzky, B., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Tern Observations Near Monomoy Island ESS Group December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Testing efficacy of bird deterrents at wind turbine facilities: a pilot study in Nova Scotia, Canada Dorey, K., Dicky, S., Walker, T. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Testing for errors in estimating bird mortality rates at wind farms and power lines Farfan, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The auditory attributes of Golden Eagles: Do Golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share the same auditory space? Walsh, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Avian Benefits of Wind Energy: A 2009 Update Sovacool, B. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
The bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region in autumn 2008 Zehtindjiev, P. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
The Challenges of Addressing Wildlife Impacts When Repowering Wind Energy Projects Smallwood, K. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Effect of Local Weather Conditions on Bird-Aircraft Collisions at British Airports Manktelow, S. April 2000 Conference Paper N/A Dynamic Device Birds
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Effects of a Large-Scale Wind Farm on Breeding Season Survival of Female Mallards and Blue-Winged Teal in the Prairie Pothole Region Gue, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Lighting Birds
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Flight Behaviour of Individual Passerine Nocturnal Migrants: A Tracking Radar Study Able, K. November 1977 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
The impact of a central Apennine wind-farm Forconi, P., Fusari, M., Appiotti, A. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
The impact of repowering of wind farms on birds and bats Hötker, H. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Impacts of Wind Power on Terrestrial Mammals - A Synthesis Helldin, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
The Influence of Group Size and Social Interactions on Collision Risk with Obstacles Croft, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Influence of Wind Energy Development on Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) Breeding Season Ecology in Eastern Idaho Proett, M. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The MINOS Project: Ecological Assessments of Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Projects Kellermann, A., Eskildsen, K., Frank, B. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
The Monitoring of the Wintering Geese in the "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2008/2009 Zehtindjiev, P., et al. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The New Zealand Falcon and Wind Farms: A Risk Assessment Framework Seaton, R., Barea, L. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
The possible impact of wind power generators on flying birds Mead, C. January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Potential Distribution of the Red Kite in Germany Heuck, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Remote Environmental Assessment Laboratory's Acoustic Library: An Archive for Studying Soundscape Ecology Kasten, E., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Scientific Validity of Criticisms made by the RSPB of Metrics used to Assess Population Level Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds Cook, A., Robinson, R. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
The song of Skylarks Alauda arvensis indicates the deterioration of an acoustic environment resulting from wind farm start‐up Szymanski, P., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The State of the Birds United States of America 2009 North American Bird Conservation Initiative January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviors in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Wheel in the Sky Keeps on Turnin': The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and its Impact on Wind Development Ballard, R. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Tracking seabirds to identify ecologically important and high risk marine areas in the western North Atlantic Montevecchi, W., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Trial High Definition Video Survey of Seabirds Mellor, M., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Turbine Induced Bird and Bat Fatalities at Wind Projects: Statistical Methods for Mortality Estimation Using Road and Pad Carcass Surveys Maurer, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Two-Dimensional Thermal Video Analysis of Offshore Bird and Bat Flight Matzner, S., Cullinan, V., Duberstein, C. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey energy and wildlife research annual report for 2018 Khalil, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2016 Khalil, M. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Understanding Bird Collisions at Wind Farms: An Updated Review on the Causes and Possible Mitigation Strategies Marques, A., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Understanding Bird Collisions With Man-made Objects: A Sensory Ecology Approach Martin, G. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Using a Collision Model to Design Safer Wind Turbine Rotors for Birds Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Using a Collision Risk Model to Assess Bird Collision Risks for Offshore Wind Farms Band, B. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Using multi-label classification for acoustic pattern detection and assisting bird species surveys Zhang, L., et al. September 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Using Spatial Analyses of Bearded Vulture Movements in Southern Africa to Inform Wind Turbine Placement Reid, T., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Janss, G. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors

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