Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document Anderson, R., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbine Bird Strike Prevention System Method and Apparatus Piesinger, G. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Sensitive Bird Populations: A Spatial Planning Guide for On-Shore Wind Farm Developments in Cumbria Youngs, T., Shackleton, D. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: Interim Standards For Risk Assessment Brett Lane & Associates, ARIA Professional Services July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Responses of Male Greater Prairie-Chickens to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Migration of Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and its Variable Annual Risk from Wind Power Facilities Across the Tehuantepec Isthmus Villegas-Patraca, R., Herrera-Alsina, L. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviors in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Studying wind energy/bird interactions: A guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites Anderson, R., et al. January 1999 Book Wind Energy general N/A Birds
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Nocturnal Bird Migration in the Negev (Israel) - a Tracking Radar Study Bruderer, B. June 1994 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Lighting Birds
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Birds and Windfarms - Critical Analysis of 4 Reports on Bird Mortality at Windfarm Sites Durchamp, M. December 2003 Website Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird Studies at Large Runs wind farm, Jamtland Falkdalen, U., Lindahl, L., Nygård, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds. A report on the BOU's Annual Conference held at the University of Leicester, 1–3 April 2005 Greenwood, J. October 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Survey Methods for Use in Assessment the Impacts of Onshore Wind Farms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Risk management model of birds and a wind farm Shimada, Y., Matsuda, H. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
A Mathematical Model of Bird Collisions With Wind Turbine Rotors Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird Fatality Study at Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: October 2005 to September 2007 Altamont Pass Avian Monitoring Team January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area 48-Hour Search Interval Bird Fatality Study Jones & Stokes Associates June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind farms' deadly reputation hard to shift Marris, E., Fairless, D. May 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2009 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2010 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The Monitoring of the Wintering Geese in the "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2008/2009 Zehtindjiev, P., et al. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of Wintering Geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2010/2011 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm 2011/2012 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2012 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm region in winter 2012/2013 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Kaliakra region in autumn 2013, and analysis of potential impact after four years of operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm and the Kaliakra region in winter 2013/2014 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm Territory, Kaliakra Region in Autumn 2014, an Analysis of Potential Impact after Five Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Prognosis and Assessment of Bird Collision Risks at Wind Turbines in Northern Germany PROGRESS Grunkorn, T., et al. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2015, and an Analysis of Potential Impact after Six Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Responses of Local Birds to the Offshore Wind Farms PAWP and OWEZ off the Dutch mainland coast Leopold, M., van Bemmelen, R., Zuur, A. October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Large-Scale, Multispecies Assessment of Avian Mortality Rates at Land-Based Wind Turbines in Northern Germany Grunkorn, T., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Radar Assisted Shutdown on Demand Ensures Zero Soaring Bird Mortality at a Wind Farm Located in a Migratory Flyway Tomé, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
The Challenges of Addressing Wildlife Impacts When Repowering Wind Energy Projects Smallwood, K. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Introducing a New Avian Sensitivity Mapping Tool to Support the Siting of Wind Farms and Power Lines in the Middle East and Northeast Africa Allinson, T. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Avian mortality associated with the Top of Iowa Wind Farm: Progress Report, Calendar Year 2003 Koford, R., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The possible impact of wind power generators on flying birds Mead, C. January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Avian Mortality from Collisions and Electrocutions Dorin, M., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Ecological Monitoring using Wildlife Detection Dogs: Bat Carcass Searches at the Wanlip Wind Turbine Stanhope, K. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Detection and Species Classification with Time-Lapse Images around a Wind Farm: Dataset Construction and Evaluation Yoshihashi, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Book of Abstracts of the Xth International Symposium on Wild Fauna (ISoWiF 2017) Monzón, A., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper N/A N/A Birds
Wing Kinematics and Flexibility for Optimal Manoeuvring and Escape Wong, J. July 2017 Thesis N/A N/A Birds
Collision sensitive niche profile of the worst affected bird-groups at wind turbine structures in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany Bose, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sourced Electric Production for the Province of Sinop/Turkey Alcan, Y. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
From Agricultural Benefits to Aviation Safety: Realizing the Potential of Continent-Wide Radar Networks Bauer, S., et al. October 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Comparing Pre- Versus Postoperational Movement of Nocturnal Migrants around a Wind Energy Facility in Northeast British Columbia, Canada d'Entremont, M., Hartley, I., Otter, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Status of herpatofaunal diversity of Ramagiri east and west reserve forests of Ananthapuramu district, Andhra Pradesh Subramanyam, B., Khan, I., Kumari, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impact of Windmills and Power Lines on Birds: A Case Study at Porbandar Taluka, Gujarat-India Suthar, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Impact Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade Tejas, K., Prashanth, A. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Applying bioacoustic methods for long-term monitoring of a nocturnal wetland bird Frommolt, K., Tauchert, K. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Wind Energy’s Impacts on Birds in South Africa: A Preliminary Review of the Results of Operational Monitoring at the First Wind Farms of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa Ralston-Paton, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Performance Test and Verification of an Off the Shelf Automated Avian Radar Tracking System May, R., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Literature review and evidence based field study on the effects of high voltage transmission lines on birds N/A May 2016 Report Wind Energy general Static Device Birds
The impact of a central Apennine wind-farm Forconi, P., Fusari, M., Appiotti, A. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Using multi-label classification for acoustic pattern detection and assisting bird species surveys Zhang, L., et al. September 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Automated bird acoustic event detection and robust species classification Zhao, Z., et al. May 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Effects of wind‐energy facilities on breeding grassland bird distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Modelled cumulative impacts on the Swift Parrot of wind farms across the species' range in south-eastern Australia Smales, I. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2017, and an analysis of potential impact after eight years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2016, and an analysis of potential impact after seven years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Estimating wind turbine fatalities using integrated detection trials Smallwood, K. Shawn, et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
How many observation days are needed to reliably describe bird migration? Tanskanen, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Ecological Impact of Airborne Wind Energy Technology: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Agenda Bruinzeel, L., et al. April 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse: Overview and Effects of Wind Energy Development National Wind Coordinating Collaborative September 2017 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Research Brief: Effects of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Kansas National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Maiden Wind Farm, Yakima and Benton Counties, Washington Young, D., et al. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Effects of development of wind energy and associated changes in land use on bird densities in upland areas Fernández‐Bellon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Effects of Wind Farms on Birds Langston, R., Pullan, J. November 2004 Book Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds

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