Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Seabirds
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Summary of Environment Impact of Renewable Energy Resources Zhu, J., Cheung, K. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish
Evaluating habitat, prey, and mesopredator associations in a community of marine birds Goyert, H., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Tracking seabirds to identify ecologically important and high risk marine areas in the western North Atlantic Montevecchi, W., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Identifying ecologically important marine areas for seabirds using behavioural information in combination with distribution patterns Camphuysen, K., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Comparison of Nocturnal Call Counts of Migrating Birds and Reflectivity Measurements on Doppler Radar Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Blaricom, D. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Adjustments of Wingbeat Frequency and Air Speed to Air Density in Free-Flying Migratory Birds Schmaljohann, H., Liechti, F. August 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Automatic Identification of Bird Targets with Radar via Patterns Produced by Wing Flapping Zaugg, S., et al. September 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds
Characteristics of Avian Mortality at a North Florida Television Tower: A 29-Year Study Engstrom, R., Crawford, R. January 2001 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds, Passerines
Combining Vessel-Based Surveys and Tracking Data to Identify Key Marine Areas for Seabirds Louzao, M., et al. September 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Comparison of Ship and Aerial Surveys of Birds at Sea Briggs, K., Tyler, W., Lewis, D. September 1984 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Examination of the Effects of Disturbance of Birds with Reference to its Importance in Ecological Assessments Hockin, D., et al. December 1992 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Flight-Call and their Value for Future Ornithological Studies and Conservation Research Farnsworth, A. July 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Sea Turtles
Monitoring Bird Migration with a Fixed-Beam Radar and a Thermal-Imaging Camera Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Livingston, J. May 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Oil Pollution and Climate have Wide-Scale Impacts on Seabird Demographics Votier, S., et al. November 2005 Journal Article N/A Chemicals Birds, Seabirds
Recording Foraging Seabirds at Sea: Standardised Recording and Coding of Foraging Behaviour and Multi-Species Foraging Associations Camphuysen, K., Garthe, S. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Response of Night-Migrating Songbirds in Cloud to Colored and Flashing Light Kaiser, M., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds, Passerines
Spectral Density of Polarimetric Variables Separating Biological Scatters in the VAD Display Bachmann, S., Zrnić, D. July 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors
The Flight Behaviour of Individual Passerine Nocturnal Migrants: A Tracking Radar Study Able, K. November 1977 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Wing-Beat Characteristics of Birds Recorded with Tracking Radar and Cine Camera Bruderer, B., et al. April 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Wingbeat Frequency of Birds in Steady Cruising Flight: New Data and Improved Predictions Pennycuick, C. March 1996 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Magnetic Maps in Animals: Nature's GPS Lohmann, K., Lohmann, C., Putman, N. July 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Sea Turtles
Bird Migration Flight Altitudes Studied by a Network of Operational Weather Radars Dokter, A., et al. June 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Radar Validation in the Field by Time-Referencing Line-Transect Surveys Dokter, A., et al. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Comparing Transect Survey and WSR-88D Radar Methods for Monitoring Daily Changes in Stopover Migrant Communities Fischer, R., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Migratory Routes of Short-Tailed Albatrosses: Use of Exclusive Economic Zones of North Pacific Rim Countries and Spatial Overlap with Commercial Fisheries in Alaska Suryan, R., et al. May 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects Alerstam, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
At-Sea Distribution and Movements of Nesting and Non-Nesting Marbled Murrelets Brachyramphus marmoratus in Northern California Hebert, P., Golightly, R. May 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Distance Sampling to Estimate the Abundance of Birds with Sector and Radial Radar Detection Methods Ma, X. January 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Estimating the Ability of Birds to Sustain Additional Human-Caused Mortalities Using a Simple Decision Rule and Allometric Relationships Dillingham, P., Fletcher, D. July 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Fate of Unproductive and Unattractive Habitats: Recent Changes in Iberian Steppes and their Effects on Endangered Avifauna Laiolo, P., Tella, J. October 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Nearfield Habitat
Nocturnal Bird Migration in Northeastern Oregon and Southeastern Washington Mabee, T., Cooper, B. October 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Migration pathways, migration speeds and non-breeding areas used by northern hemisphere wintering Red Knots Calidris canutus of the subspecies rufa Niles, L., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Abundance and Density of Lesser Prairie-Chickens and Leks in Texas Timmer, J., et al. July 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Overview of raptor monitoring in Spain Zapata, J. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Effects of Hydrographic and Meteorological Factors on Seasonal Seabird Abundance in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., et al. September 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Geographic Assignment of Seabirds to their Origin: Combining Morphologic, Genetic, and Biogeochemical Analyses Gomez-Diaz, E., Gonzalez-Solis, J. July 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Foraging Ranges as a Preliminary Tool for Identifying Candidate Marine Protected Areas Thaxter, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Integrating Aerial and Ship Surveys of Marine Birds into a Combined Density Surface Model: A Case Study of Wintering Common Loons Winiarski, K., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Acoustic Indices for Biodiversity Assessments: Analyses of Bias Based on Simulated Bird Assemblages and Recommendations for Field Surveys Gasc, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Acuity of a Cryptochrome and Vision-Based Magnetoreception System in Birds Solov'yov, I., Mouritsen, H., Schulten, K. July 2010 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds
Beware the Boojum: Caveats and Strengths of Avian Radar Beason, R., Nohara, T., Weber, P. March 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Counting Seabirds at Sea from Ships: A Review of Methods Employed and a Suggestion for a Standardized Approach Tasker, M., et al. July 1984 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Animal Reactions to Oncoming Vehicles: A Conceptual Review Lima, S., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviors in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds. A report on the BOU's Annual Conference held at the University of Leicester, 1–3 April 2005 Greenwood, J. October 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Auditory Sensitivity in Aquatic Animals Lucke, K., et al. June 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Two-Dimensional Thermal Video Analysis of Offshore Bird and Bat Flight Matzner, S., Cullinan, V., Duberstein, C. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds
Reintroduction of White-tailed Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla to Ireland Mee, A., et al. January 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Reintroduction of White-Tailed Eagles to the Republic of Ireland: A Case Study of Media Coverage Burke, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
From Agricultural Benefits to Aviation Safety: Realizing the Potential of Continent-Wide Radar Networks Bauer, S., et al. October 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Golden Eagle Diet Breadth and Reproduction in Relation to Fluctuations in Primary Prey Abundance in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin Preston, C., Jones, R., Horton, N. September 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Applying bioacoustic methods for long-term monitoring of a nocturnal wetland bird Frommolt, K., Tauchert, K. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Integration of passive acoustic monitoring data into OBIS-SEAMAP, a global biogeographic database, to advance spatially-explicit ecological assessments Fujioka, E., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
An estimator of wildlife fatality from observed carcasses Huso, M. April 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Using multi-label classification for acoustic pattern detection and assisting bird species surveys Zhang, L., et al. September 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Automated bird acoustic event detection and robust species classification Zhao, Z., et al. May 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes Duerr, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
A call-independent and automatic acoustic system for the individual recognition of animals: A novel model using four passerines Cheng, J., Sun, Y., Ji, L. November 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
A review of the occurrence of inter‐colony segregation of seabird foraging areas and the implications for marine environmental impact assessment Bolton, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effect of anthropogenic light on bird movement, habitat selection, and distribution: A systematic map protocol Adams, C., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Lighting Birds
A Test for Bias Attributable to Seabird Avoidance of Ships during Surveys Conducted in the Tropical Pacific Borberg, J., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Avoidance Birds, Seabirds
Obstacle Avoidance in Social Groups: New Insights from Asynchronous Models Croft, S., et al. May 2015 Journal Article N/A Collision Birds
Modelling Foraging Movements of Diving Predators: A Theoretical Study Exploring the Effect of Heterogeneous Landscapes on Foraging Efficiency Chimienti, M., et al. September 2014 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Birds
A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data Bellan, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
New Discoveries in Landbird Migration using Geolocators, and a Flight Plan for the Future McKinnon, E., Fraser, K., Stutchbury, B. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Light-Induced Bird Strikes on Vessels in Southwest Greenland Merkel, F., Johansen, K. November 2011 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Matches and Mismatches Between Seabird Distributions Estimated From At-Sea Surveys and Concurrent Individual-Level Tracking Carroll, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Operational offshore wind farms and associated ship traffic cause profound changes in distribution patterns of Loons (Gavia spp.) Mendel, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Lighting Birds
Avian information systems: Developing web-based bird avoidance models Shamoun-Baranes, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance Birds
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Displacement Birds
What Flight Heights Tell Us About Foraging and Potential Conflicts with Wind Farms: A Case Study in Lesser Black-Backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) Corman, A., Garthe, S. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Displacement Birds
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian Collision Risk Models for Wind Energy Impact Assessments Masden, E., Cook, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: insights from Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies Thaxter, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors

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