Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Zipkin, E., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Aerial Surveys Of Round 3, Zone 5 For Waterbirds - Final Report WWT Consulting May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Spatially Explicit Model of Wintering Common Loons: Conservation Implications Winiarski, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Survey of Beached Birds and Mammals: Sao Jãcinto - Torreira (Portugal) - March 2014 to March 2015 van Nus, T., Moreira, P. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Report on a Red-throated Diver Agent-Based Model to Assess the Cumulative Impact from Offshore Wind Farms Topping, C., Petersen, I. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Implications for Offshore Wind Farm Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment: How the Manipulation of Density and Breeding Season Parameters Affects the Outcomes of Collision Risk Modelling Tongue, A. September 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
First year post-construction monitoring of bats and birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Seabird-Wind Farm Interactions During the Breeding Season Vary Within and Between Years: A Case Study of Lesser Black-Backed Gull Larus fuscus in the UK Thaxter, C., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Appendix K Tetra Tech Bird Survey Report: Spring - Fall 2010 Avian and Bat Studies Report Lake Erie Wind Power Study Svedlow, A., Gilpatrick, L., McIlvain, D. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Observations of Seabirds at Offshore Wind Turbines near Blyth in Northeast England Rothery, P., Newton, I., Little, B. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Lighting Birds
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Lighting Birds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Night Migration of Songbirds and Waterfowl at the Utgrunden Off-Shore Wind Farm: A Radar-Assisted Study in Southern Kalmar Sound Pettersson, J., Fågelvind, J. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Changes in Bird Habitat Utilisation around the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm, with Particular Emphasis on Common Scoter Petersen, I., Fox, A. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Birds and Offshore Wind: Studying and Assessing Effects Pereksta, D. July 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm: Diver Surveys 2009-10 Percival, S. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Compendium of Avian Occurrence Information for the Continental Shelf Waters along the Atlantic Coast of the United States: Final Report (Database Selection - Shorebirds) O'Connell, A., Spiegel, C., Johnson, S. April 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
COWRIE Workshop on the Cumulative Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Birds Norman, T., Buisson, R., Askew, N. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Assessment of Wind‐Farm and Other Bird Casualties from Carcasses Found on a Northumbrian Beach Over an 11‐Year Period Newton, I., Little, B. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Appendix J WEST NEXRAD Analysis: Assessment of Nocturnal Bird Migration Activity from Weather Radar Data for the Proposed Icebreaker Wind Energy Facility, Lake Erie, Ohio Nations, C., Gordon, C. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds

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