Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A framework for decision points to trigger adaptive management actions in long-term incidental take permits Dalthorp, D., Huso, M. December 2015 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Proposal to Permit Take Provided Under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Gould, R. April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
A Special Purpose: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Wind Energy Rose, R. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming Copeland, H., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Wheel in the Sky Keeps on Turnin': The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and its Impact on Wind Development Ballard, R. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Greening the Wind: Environmental and Social Considerations for Wind Power Development Ledec, G., Rapp, K., Aiello, R. December 2011 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Avian Collision and Electrocution Risk Reduction Adaptive Management Plan for the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) August 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Tafila Region Wind Power Projects: Cumulative Effects Assessment International Finance Corporation January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment Boezaart, A., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind energy developments and Natura 2000 European Union January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wildlife Impacts of and Public Attitudes Towards Small Wind Turbines Tatchley, C. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
On Certain Problems Concerning Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Turbines in Scope of Acoustic Effects Wszolek, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the 20 MW Wind Power Project in Tejona, Costa Rica Report of Phase 2 of the Tejona Wind Power Project (TWPP) van Hulle, F., et al. February 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Port Elizabeth Wind Energy Facility Avifaunal and Bat Impact Assessment Strugnell, L., Smallie, J., Patterson-Abrolat, C. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
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