Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Radar Monitoring of Bird and Bat Movement Patterns on Block Island and its Coastal Waters Mizrahi, D., et al. September 2010 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Variation in Bat and Bird Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities: Assessing the Effects of Rotor Size and Tower Height Barclay, R., Baerwald, E., Gruver, J. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Assessment of bat and avian mortality at a pilot wind turbine at Coega, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa Doty, A., Martin, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development Fargione, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
A Vehicle-Mounted Radar for Dual-Purpose Monitoring of Birds Harmata, A., Leighty, G., O'Neil, E. September 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Accounting for Unsearched Areas in Estimating Wind Turbine-Caused Fatality Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity Miderman, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Integrating applied ecology and planning policy: the case of micro-turbines and wildlife conservation Park, K., Turner, A., Minderman, J. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Megawatts are not megawatt-hours and other responses to Willis et al. Sovacool, B. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Historical Challenges of Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions: How This May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Biodiversity & Wind Energy: A Bird's and Bat's Perspective Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Search Areas for Monitoring Bird and Bat Carcasses at Wind Farms using a Monte-Carlo Model Hull, C., Muir, S. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Ecological Baseline Studies for the Hatchet Ridge Wind Energy Project, Shasta County, California Young, D. Jr., et al. August 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2006 Jain, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: A First Approach to Deal with Cumulative Effects on Birds and Bats of Offshore Wind Farms and Other Human Activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
ACME: A Partially Periodic Estimator of Avian & Chiropteran Mortality at Wind Turbines Wolpert, R. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Analysis of Potential Wildlife/Wind Plant Interactions Bighorn Site, Klickitat County, Washington Johnson, G., Erickson, W. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Applying Radar Technology to Migratory Bird Conservation and Management: Strengthening and Expanding a Collaborative Ruth, J. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Assessing Bat and Bird Fatality Risk at Wind Farm Sites using Acoustic Detectors Heist, K. August 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Mortality During the First Year of Operation at the Klondike Phase I Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Risk Assessment for the Montezuma II Wind Project, Solano County, California ICF International November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Birds and Bats: Potential Impacts and Survey Techniques Global Energy Concepts October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Sealaska Corporation: Report September 2002 through December 2005 Lynette, R. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions Phase I: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Draft Avian and Bat Post-Construction Monitoring Plan: Raleigh Wind Farm, Invenergy Canada Dillon Consulting April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
An Ecological Risk Assessment of Wind Energy Development in Montana Martin, B., Pearson, A., Bauer, B. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Wind-Turbine Caused Bird and Bat Fatality when Zero Carcasses are Observed Huso, M., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Fall 2005 Radar and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Fall 2006 Radar Surveys of Nighttime Migration Activity at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
First Year Post-Construction Monitoring of Bats and Birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Melancthon Grey Wind Project Environmental Screening Report Stantec Consulting February 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Monitoring of Bird and Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines at the Summerview Wind Power Project, Alberta 2005-2006 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Observations from the Use of Dogs to Undertake Carcass Searches at Wind Facilities in Australia Bennett, E. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Oregon's High Desert and Wind Energy: Opportunities and Strategies for Responsible Development Oregon Natural Desert Association May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Preliminary Methodology to Assess the National and Regional Impact of U.S. Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats Diffendorfer, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, First Annual Report: January - December 2007 Erickson, W., Jeffrey, J., Poulton, V. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Scientific Review of California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Hicks, W., Newman, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Spring 2007 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Warning Sounds and Color for Reducing Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Khan, S. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind & Wildlife Key Research Topics National Wind Coordinating Collaborative May 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment Kingsley, A., Whittam, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Environmental Interview: Wind Power, Birds and Bats Green, M., Rydell, J. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Bat and Bird Detection of the DTBat and DTBird Systems at Calandawind Turbine - Final Report Hanagasioglu, M., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Mitigating Wind Energy Impacts on Wildlife: Approaches for Multiple Taxa Arnett, E., May, R. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Comprehensive Guide to Studying Wind Energy Wildlife Interactions Strickland, D., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Managing coexistence for bats and wind turbines Alvarez-Castaneda, T., Lidicker, W. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Enhancing Carcass Removal Trials at Three Wind Energy Facilities in Portugal Bernardino, J., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds and Bats Atienza, J., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and bat mortality at Portuguese wind farms Bernardino, J., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Final Report: avian and bat mortality associated with the Vansycle wind project Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
The impact of repowering of wind farms on birds and bats Hötker, H. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A radar and visual study of nocturnal bird and bat migration at the proposed Prattsburgh-Italy wind power project, New York, spring 2005 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds

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