Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines Young, D., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Lighting Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Studies for the Proposed Dairy Hills Wind Project, Wyoming County, New York Young, D. Jr., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Sensitive Species Baseline Study Final Report: Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Umatilla County, Oregon Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Avian Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Young, D. Jr., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Hopkins Ridge Wind Project, Columbia County, Washington: Final Report Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Wind farms in Thrace: Updating the proposal for proper site selection WWF Greece September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Fall 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project: Draft Report Woodlot Alternatives November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Deriving Collision Avoidance Rates for Red Kites Milvus milvus Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Collision Avoidance of Golden Eagles at Wind Farms Under the 'Band' Collision Risk Model Whitfield, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1 Land-based Wind Energy US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Avian Risk Behavior and Fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 to February 1999 Thelander, C., Rugge, L. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
AWWI Technical Report: Evaluating a Commercial-Ready Technology for Raptor Detection and Deterrence at a Wind Energy Facility in California Terrill, S., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
2009 Spring, Summer, and Fall Avian and Bat Surveys Stantec Consulting December 2009 Report N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Based on Burrowing Owl Burrows, Raptor Flights, and Collisions with Wind Turbines Smallwood, K., Neher, L. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Effects of Repowering a Portion of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: The Diablo Winds Energy Project Smallwood, K. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Australian Range Smales, I. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Eagle Owl and Wind Power development at Karmøy, Western Norway Rov, N., Jacobsen, K. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Altamont Avian Plan: Status Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service By the Consortium of Altamont Owners Richard Curry Associates December 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Searches for dead birds in Smøla wind-power plant area 2011 - annual report Reitan, O. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Interim Golden Eagle Technical Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Protocols; and Other Recommendations in Support of Golden Eagle Management and Permit Issuance Pagel, J., Whittington, D., Allen, G. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment And Prediction Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Energy Facilities In The Southeastern United States Nicholson, C., et al. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Range Muir, S., Smales, I. September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles: Modelling Collision Risk Using Vantage Point Observations in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee - Final Report on Fluxes, Flight Altitudes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Avian Monitoring Study and Risk Assessment for the Shiloh Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California, Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Year One Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Post-Construction Meteorological Tower Fatality Study at the Shiloh I Wind Project Site Solano County, California Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Developing High-Resolution Spatial Data of Migration Corridors for Avian Species of Concern in Regions of High Potential Wind Development Katzner, T. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report Jones & Stokes Associates January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Baseline Ecological Studies for the Klondike Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-Construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2008 Jain, A., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Demonstration Windpower Project St. Lawrence Bird Surveys Jacques Whitford Environment May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Report West Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., Gritski, R., Luginbuhl, J. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Plan East Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Clocaenog Forest Wind Farm Collision Risk Report Model George, A. August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl

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