Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
COWRIE Workshop on the Cumulative Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Birds Norman, T., Buisson, R., Askew, N. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Creation of microhabitats (tidepools) in ripraps with climax communities as a way to mitigate negative effects of artificial substrate on marine biodiversity Ostale-Valriberas, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Criteria and Case Definitions for Serious Injury and Death of Pinnipeds and Cetaceans Caused by Anthropogenic Trauma Moore, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Critical challenges and capacity building needs for renewable energy deployment in Pacific Small Island Developing States (Pacific SIDS) Lucas, H., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Critical Literature Review Impact of Wind Energy and Related Human Activities on Grassland and Shrub-Steppe Birds Mabey, S., Paul, E. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife Goodale, W., Milman, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Cumulative Impacts Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms Renewable UK June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cumulative impacts of offshore windfarms Damian, H., Merck, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Current situation of offshore development in Germany and environmentally sound expansion of offshore wind energy van Leusen, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Current status of wind energy policy in Poland Gnatowska, R., Moryn-Kucharczyk, E. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Curtailing Wind Turbine Operations to Reduce Avian Mortality Singh, K., Baker, E., Lackner, M. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
D2.4 Collation of Off‐shore Wind‐Wave Dynamics Bredmose, H., et al. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
D2.6 Report on Offshore Wind System Monitoring Practice and Normalisation Procedures Schaumann, P., et al. December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
D4.06 Data Reports and Databases: Data on Coastal and Offshore Wind Measurements Courtney, M., et al. February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Damage analysis of ship collisions with offshore wind turbine foundations Moulas, D., Shafiee, M., Mehmanparast, A. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Navigation
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Dark Green Electricity Comes from the Sea: Capitalizing on Ecological Merits of Offshore Wind Power? Toonen, H., Lindeboom, H. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Data integration for conservation: Leveraging multiple data types to advance ecological assessments and habitat modeling for marine megavertebrates using OBIS–SEAMAP Fujioka, E., et al. March 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Day of Year, Temperature, Wind, and Precipitation Predict Timing of Bat Migration Pettit, J., O'Keefe October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Debris in Deep Water Angiolillo, M. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A N/A
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Decision Support Requirements for Wind Farm Placement Planning in Alberta Adagha, O., Carpendale, S., Levy, R. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Deep Water: The Next Step for Offshore Wind Energy Arapogianni, A., et al. July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development Jonkman, J., et al. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Delivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit Hassan, G., Capener, P. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Delivering Offshore Electricity to the EU: Spatial Planning of Offshore Renewable Energies and Electricity Grid Infrastructures in an Integrated EU Maritime Policy Seanergy May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Demography of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Unfragmented Grasslands in Kansas Augustine, J., Sandercock, B. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Demonstrating a New Framework for the Comparison of Environmental Impacts from Small- and Large-Scale Hydropower and Wind Power Projects Bakken, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Static Device Farfield Environment
Demonstration Windpower Project St. Lawrence Bird Surveys Jacques Whitford Environment May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Density dependence and marine bird populations: are wind farm assessments precautionary? Horswill, C., O'Brien, S., Robinson, R. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Deriving an Avoidance Rate for Swans Suitable for Onshore Wind Farm Collision Risk Modelling Whitfield, D., Urquhart, B. February 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Deriving Collision Avoidance Rates for Red Kites Milvus milvus Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Deng, Z., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Design and Implementation of a New Low-Cost Subsurface Mooring System for Efficient Data Recovery Tian, C., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Design and Implementation of an Underwater Sound Recording Device Martinez, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements Xia, G., Zhou, L. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Detection and Processing of Electromagnetic and Near-Field Acoustic Signals in Elasmobranch Fishes Kalmijn, A. September 2000 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Detection of Infrasound in Fish and Behavioral Responses to Intense Infrasound in Juvenile Salmonids and European Silver Eels: A Minireview Sand, O., et al. January 2001 Conference Paper N/A Noise Fish
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Determination of Raptor Migratory Patterns Over a Large Landscape Seeland, H., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Determining Night-Time Distribution of Long-Tailed Ducks Using Satellite Telemetry Allison, T., Perkins, S., Perry, M. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Determining the dependence of marine pile driving sound levels on strike energy, pile penetration, and propagation effects using a linear mixed model based on damped cylindrical spreading Martin, S., Barclay, D. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Determining the Detection Thresholds for Harbor Porpoise Clicks of Autonomous Data Loggers, the Timing Porpoise Detectors Verfuss, U., et al. February 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Determining the local acceptance of wind energy projects in Switzerland: The importance of general attitudes and project characteristics Walter, G. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Human Dimensions
Developing a Deeper Understanding of Animal Movements and Spatial Dynamics through Novel Application of Network Analyses Jacoby, D., et al. June 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
Developing a Habitat Loss Method for Assessing Displacement Impacts from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Hooton, L. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities Hallingstad, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Developing an Understanding of the Drivers of Bat Activity Patterns Relevant to Wind Turbines Thwaits, T. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Developing and Applying a GIS-Assisted Approach to Evaluate Visual Impact in Wind Farms Molina-Ruiz, J., et al. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship McCann, J. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Developing Guidance on Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment for Offshore Wind Farm Developers King, S., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Developing High-Resolution Spatial Data of Migration Corridors for Avian Species of Concern in Regions of High Potential Wind Development Katzner, T. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method Ho, L., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Development and application of a low-cost rapid assessment system for coastal benthic habitats Benjamin, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas Obermeyer, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions Phase I: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling Würsig, B., Greene, C., Jefferson, T. February 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Development of Noise Mitigation Measures in Offshore Wind Farm Construction Koschinski, S., Lüdemann, K. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland's Seas: Research Implementation Strategy Scottish Government September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish

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