Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
A long‐term assessment of raptor displacement at a wind farm Dohm, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Raptor Baseline Studies in Energy Development Kennedy, P. June 1980 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Using a Collision Model to Design Safer Wind Turbine Rotors for Birds Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Overview of raptor monitoring in Spain Zapata, J. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Clocaenog Forest Wind Farm Collision Risk Report Model George, A. August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol Morrison, M. November 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Risk Behavior and Fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 to February 1999 Thelander, C., Rugge, L. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines Young, D., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds, Raptors
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - September 2001 Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway: Status Report 1st January 2008 Bevanger, K., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles: Modelling Collision Risk Using Vantage Point Observations in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos New, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Action on Multiple Fronts, Illegal Poisoning and Wind Farm Planning, is Required to Reverse the Decline of the Egyptian Vulture in Southern Spain Sanz-Aguilar, A., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels Thaker, M., Zambre, A., Bhosale, H. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Terrestrial Mammals
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Australian Range Smales, I. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Characteristics of Soaring Birds' Spring Migration over Inland SE Bulgaria Shurulinkov, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Overlap Between Wind Power Plants and Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in Spain Telleria, J. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Reintroduction of White-Tailed Eagles to the Republic of Ireland: A Case Study of Media Coverage Burke, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report Jones & Stokes Associates January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Counting Seabirds at Sea from Ships: A Review of Methods Employed and a Suggestion for a Standardized Approach Tasker, M., et al. July 1984 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Lack of Sound Science in Assessing Wind Farm Impacts on Seabirds Green, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds: A Pilot Study in Northern Gannets in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., Markones, N., Corman, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
A Bridge Between Oceans: Overland Migration of Marine Birds in a Wind Energy Corridor Lamb, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Flight Behavior and Height in Response to Altered Wind Strength and Direction Ainley, D., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Seabirds
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Zipkin, E., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds

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