Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Environmental Magnetic Fields: Influences on Early Embryogenesis Cameron, I., et al. April 1993 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in Northern Spain - Lessons to be Learned Camina, A. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Raptor Displacement Due to the Construction of a Wind Farm: Preliminary Results After the First 2 Years Since the Construction Campedelli, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement N/A
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Identifying ecologically important marine areas for seabirds using behavioural information in combination with distribution patterns Camphuysen, K., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Recording Foraging Seabirds at Sea: Standardised Recording and Coding of Foraging Behaviour and Multi-Species Foraging Associations Camphuysen, K., Garthe, S. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Recommended Protocols for Monitoring Impacts of Wind Turbines on Birds Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
An Aero-acoustic Noise Distribution Prediction Methodology for Offshore Wind Farms Cao, J., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Social Acceptance of On-Shore Wind Energy in Apulia Region (Southern Italy) Caporale, D., De Lucia, C. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Assessing the impact of nine established wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace, Greece Carcamo, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Coping with Uncertainty in Environmental Impact Assessments: Open Techniques Cardenas, I., Halman, J. September 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Automated Systems for Monitoring Avian Interactions with Utility Structures and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigative Measures Carlton, R., Harness, R. February 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Evaluation of marine spatial planning Carneiro, G. January 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Water Quality
Nonmarket Valuation of Marine Resources in the Northeast: Implications for Recreational Fisheries Management and Offshore Wind Energy Development Carr-Harris, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Visual Impacts
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Visual Impacts
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-Field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Carton, G., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Locating Spawning Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Linnaeus, 1758) at Sea by Means of Sound Casaretto, L., et al. June 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Fish
Final Environmental Impact Statement Na Pua Makani Wind Project and Habitat Conservation Plan Case, S., Tetra Tech Inc. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
International experiences with opposition to wind energy siting decisions: lessons for environmental and social appraisal Cashmore, M., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound Casper, B., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Onset of Barotrauma Injuries Related to Number of Pile Driving Strike Exposures in Hybrid Striped Bass Casper, B., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Life-cycle cost analysis of floating offshore wind farms Castro-Santos, L., Diaz-Casas, V. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Bats and Onshore Wind Farms: Site-by-Site Assessment and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocols Catherine, C., Spray, S. June 2009 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Conservation and management issues for the Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest National Park Catsadorakis, G., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms Causon, P., Gill, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
National Status and Trends Data Portal Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment January 2012 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment
National Ocean Economics Program Center for the Blue Economy January 2012 Website N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
The Ecosystem Consequences of Sediment Disturbance Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) March 2005 Report Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
CEDREN Final Report Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Fish
A Baseline Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Offshore Windfarm Cables Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, EMF, Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Field Testing of Multiple Sensors in an Underwater Environment Monitoring System Chan, H., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Noise pollution limits metal bioaccumulation and growth rate in a filter feeder, the Pacific oyster Magallana gigas Charifi, M., et al. April 2018 Journal Article N/A Noise Invertebrates
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Long-Term, Global-Scale Statistics of Sound Propagation Cheinet, S. March 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Farfield Environment
Marine Oil Spills—Preparedness and Countermeasures Chen, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A Chemicals N/A
The factors affecting stakeholders' acceptance of offshore wind farms along the western coast of Taiwan: Evidence from stakeholders' perceptions Chen, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Analysis of Factors that Influence Development of Wind Power in Atlantic Canada: Application of Discrete Regression Modelling Chen, Q. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
A call-independent and automatic acoustic system for the individual recognition of animals: A novel model using four passerines Cheng, J., Sun, Y., Ji, L. November 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Study and Application of Underwater Noise Impact in Coastal Region off Western Taiwan Cheng, Y., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines Chief Medical Officer of Heath of Ontario May 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviors in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Modelling Foraging Movements of Diving Predators: A Theoretical Study Exploring the Effect of Heterogeneous Landscapes on Foraging Efficiency Chimienti, M., et al. September 2014 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Birds
Life Cycle Environmental Impact of Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms in Texas Chipindula, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Life Cycle Assessment
Bat fatalities at wind farms in Taiwan Chou, C., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Energy Scenarios for the Simulation of the German Power System Until 2050: The Effect of Social and Ecological Factors Christ, M., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Marine Wind Farms and Seabirds: Updated National Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Wake Effects of Large Offshore Wind Farms Identified from Satellite SAR Christiansen, M., Hasager, C. October 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Oil Platforms off California are Among the Most Productive Marine Fish Habitats Globally Claisse, J., et al. September 2014 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
The Influence of Large Offshore Wind Farms on the North Sea and Baltic Sea - A Comprehensive Literature Review Clark, S., Schroeder, F., Baschek, B. December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Water Quality
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Click Communication in Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Clausen, K., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Accounting for False-Positive Acoustic Detections of Bats Using Occupancy Models Clement, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Fish Assemblages Associated with Urban Structures and Natural Reefs in Sydney, Australia Clynick, B., Chapman, M., Underwood, A. April 2008 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Rapid Macrobenthic Recovery after Dredging Activities in an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Short-term effects of fishery exclusion in offshore wind farms on macrofaunal communities in the Belgian part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
The Added Value of 'Small-Scale' Monitoring of the Soft-Sediment Endobenthos around Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., Vanaverbeke, M., Magda, V. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Common Raven Occurrence in Relation to Energy Transmission Line Corridors Transiting Human-Altered Sagebrush Steppe Coates, P., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment

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