Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Research and Guidance on Restoration and Decommissioning of Onshore Wind Farms Welstead, J., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: A calculus method for synthesizing choice experiments studies Wen, C., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Visual Impacts
Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources Wenz, G. May 1962 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Status and Trends for the World’s Kelp Forests Wernberg, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Ecosystem
Spatial Framework Assessment and Assessment Criteria for On-Shore Wind Energy Development in West Lothian West Lothian Council April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Stakeholder Perceptions of the Wave Hub Development in Cornwall, UK. West, J., Bailey, I., Whithead, I. September 2009 Conference Paper Offshore Wind N/A Stakeholder Engagement
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Avian Collision and Electrocution Risk Reduction Adaptive Management Plan for the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) August 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Lessons from Stakeholder Dialogues on Marine Aquaculture in Offshore Wind Farms: Perceived Potentials, Constraints and Research Gaps Wever, L., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Male Greater Prairie-Chickens Adjust their Vocalizations in the Presence of Wind Turbine Noise Whalen, C., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of wind turbine noise on the surrounding soundscape in the context of greater-prairie chicken courtship vocalizations Whalen, C., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Landscape Level Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M. December 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Evaluation of Mobile Acoustic Techniques for Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Collision Avoidance of Golden Eagles at Wind Farms Under the 'Band' Collision Risk Model Whitfield, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Deriving Collision Avoidance Rates for Red Kites Milvus milvus Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Deriving an Avoidance Rate for Swans Suitable for Onshore Wind Farm Collision Risk Modelling Whitfield, D., Urquhart, B. February 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Tethys knowledge management system: Working to advance the marine renewable energy industry Whiting, J., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) N/A N/A
North Atlantic Right Whale Distribution and Seasonal Occurrence in Nearshore Waters off New Jersey, USA, and Implications for Management Whitt, A., Dudzinski, K., Laliberté, J. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Shades of Green: A Bird's Eye View of Wind Energy Whittam, B., Kingsley, A. April 2003 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Long-Term Dynamics of Fouling Communities Found on Offshore Installations in the North Sea Whomersley, P., Picken, G. October 2003 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Invertebrates
The Efficacy of Midwater Artificial Structures for Attracting Pelagic Sport Fish Wickham, D., Watson, J. Jr., Ogren, L. January 1973 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Public engagement with offshore renewable energy: A critical review Wiersma, B., Devine-Wright, P. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Flatfish habitat use near North America's first offshore wind farm Wilber, D., Carey, D., Griffin, M. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Overview of ocean power technology Wilberforce, T., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The benthic impacts of the Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef Wilding, T. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Invertebrates, Physical Environment
Evaluating artificial reef performance: approaches to pre- and post-deployment research Wilding, T., Sayer, M. February 2002 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Effects of High-Relief Structures on Cold Temperate Fish Assemblages: A field Experiment Wilhelmsson, D., Yahya, S., Öhman, M. August 2006 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Fish
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2012-2014) Williams, K., et al. October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Marine Mammals and Ocean Noise: Future Directions and Information Needs with Respect to Science, Policy and Law in Canada Williams, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Marine Life: Publication Patterns, New Discoveries, and Future Directions in Research and Management Williams, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Swimming Speed, Respiration Rate, and Estimated Cost of Transport in Adult Killer Whales Williams, R., Noren, D. April 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats are not birds and other problems with Sovacool's (2009) analysis of animal fatalities due to electricity generation Willis, C., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Hooton, L. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Obligations and Aspirations: A Critical Evaluation of Offshore Wind Farm Cumulative Impact Assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
A decision framework to identify populations that are most vulnerable to the population level effects of disturbance Wilson, L., et al. December 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
2014 Bat Survey Report: Wilton IV Wind Energy Center Burleigh County, North Dakota Wilton Wind IV January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Sea Turtles
Oklahoma's future wind energy resources and their relationship with the Central Plains low-level jet Wimhurst, J., Greene, J. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Space use by Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Response to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Responses of Male Greater Prairie-Chickens to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Survival of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens Winder, V., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Integrating Aerial and Ship Surveys of Marine Birds into a Combined Density Surface Model: A Case Study of Wintering Common Loons Winiarski, K., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Spatially Explicit Model of Wintering Common Loons: Conservation Implications Winiarski, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Vogels en windturbines (Birds and windturbines) Winkelman, J. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Cod and Sole Behaviour in an Offshore Wind Farm Winter, E., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Fish
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Seascapes of Fear: Evaluating Sublethal Predator Effects Experienced and Generated by Marine Mammals Wirsing, A., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Eastern Pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Long-term implications of sustained wind power growth in the United States: Potential benefits and secondary impacts Wiser, R., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
MERiFIC 3.3.2: Grey Seal Population Surveys of the Isles of Scilly and Parc Naturel Marin d'Iroise Witt, M. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
ACME: A Partially Periodic Estimator of Avian & Chiropteran Mortality at Wind Turbines Wolpert, R. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Co-production in distributed generation: renewable energy and creating space for fitting infrastructure within landscapes Wolsink, M. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Legal and Policy
Near-Shore Wind Power - Protected Seascapes, Environmentalists' Attitudes, and the Technocratic Planning Perspective Wolsink, M. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Visual Impacts
Wing Kinematics and Flexibility for Optimal Manoeuvring and Escape Wong, J. July 2017 Thesis N/A N/A Birds
Co-Creation of Individual-Based Models by Practitioners and Modellers to Inform Environmental Decision-Making Wood, K., Stillman, R., Goss-Custard, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Whale Entanglements With Submarine Telecommunication Cables Wood, M., Carter, L. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Fall 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project: Draft Report Woodlot Alternatives November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A

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