Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Carbon or Cash: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Environmental and Economic Messages on Attitudes about Wind Energy in the United States Peterson, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Practical implementation of auditory time and frequency weighting in marine bioacoustics Tougaard, J., Beedholm, K. February 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Comparing offshore and onshore wind development considering acceptance costs Hevia-Koch, P., Jacobsen, H. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Regional variation in public acceptance of wind energy development in Europe: What are the roles of planning procedures and participation? Suskevics, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Operational offshore wind farms and associated ship traffic cause profound changes in distribution patterns of Loons (Gavia spp.) Mendel, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Considerations for Upscaling Individual Effects of Wind Energy Development Towards Population-Level Impacts on Wildlife May, R., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
A procedure for deriving wind turbine noise limits by taking into account annoyance Fredianelli, L., Carpita, S., Licitra, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
Renewable energy selection for net-zero energy communities: Life cycle based decision making under uncertainty Karunathilake, H., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Population-Level Effects of Wind Farms on a Desert Lizard Keehn, J., Shoemaker, K., Feldman, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities Hallingstad, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
AWWI White Paper: Integration of Wildlife Detection and Deterrent Systems in Wind Power Plants Nielsen, K. December 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Echolocation activity of migratory bats at a wind energy facility: testing the feeding-attraction hypothesis to explain fatalities Reimer, J., Baerwald, E., Barlay, R. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
The determinants of wind energy growth in the United States: Drivers and barriers to state-level development Schumacher, K., Yang, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Application of Isoscapes to Determine Geographic Origin of Terrestrial Wildlife for Conservation and Management Vander Zanden, H., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels Thaker, M., Zambre, A., Bhosale, H. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Is Marine Spatial Planning Enough to Overcome Biological Data Deficiencies? Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Bats and Wind Energy: Impacts, Mitigation, and Tradeoffs Allison, T. November 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Predicting bird collisions with wind turbines: Comparison of the new empirical Flux Collision Model with the SOSS Band model Kleyheeg-Hartman, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Emissions from corrosion protection systems of offshore wind farms: Evaluation of the potential impact on the marine environment Kirchgeorg, T., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms Causon, P., Gill, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Carcass Age and Searcher Identity Affect Morphological Assessment of Sex of Bats Nelson, D., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Property Value Impacts of Wind Turbines and the Influence of Attitudes toward Wind Energy Vyn, R. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Nocturnal flight activity of northern gannets Morus bassanus and implications for modelling collision risk at offshore wind farms Furness, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Noise and Sleep: Pilot Studies on the Influence of Noise Characteristics Morsing, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF, Static Device N/A
Multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Effects of development of wind energy and associated changes in land use on bird densities in upland areas Fernández‐Bellon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The auditory attributes of Golden Eagles: Do Golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share the same auditory space? Walsh, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Out of Sight of Wind Turbine-Reindeer Response to Wind Farms in Operation Skarin, A., Sandström, P, Alam, M. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: A calculus method for synthesizing choice experiments studies Wen, C., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Underwater noise levels of pile-driving in a New Zealand harbour, and the potential impacts on endangered Hector's dolphins Leunissen, E., Dawson, S. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey energy and wildlife research annual report for 2018 Khalil, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Effects of larger turbines for the offshore wind farm at Krieger's Flak, Sweden. Assessment of impact on marine mammals Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting Birds
Process-based vs. ad-hoc methods to estimate mortality using carcass surveys data: A review and a note about evidence complacency Peron, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device N/A
AWWI Technical Report: Evaluating a Commercial-Ready Technology for Raptor Detection and Deterrence at a Wind Energy Facility in California Terrill, S., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Creation of microhabitats (tidepools) in ripraps with climax communities as a way to mitigate negative effects of artificial substrate on marine biodiversity Ostale-Valriberas, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Flatfish habitat use near North America's first offshore wind farm Wilber, D., Carey, D., Griffin, M. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Evaluating habitat, prey, and mesopredator associations in a community of marine birds Goyert, H., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Spatial targeting, synergies and scale: Exploring the criteria of smart practices for siting renewable energy projects Frantal, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Appendix M-1 Biological Assessment for Project Icebreaker EDR, D.P.C. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Voigt, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Opposition "overblown"? Community response to wind energy siting in the Western United States Giordono, L., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Wind Energy and Bat Conservation - A Review by the Canadian Wind Energy Association Barnes, R., Hill, M., Peters, K. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D., Vasileiou, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Behavioral responses by migrating juvenile salmonids to a subsea high-voltage DC power cable Wyman, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Barbastelle bats in a wind farm: are they at risk? Apoznanski, G., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Measuring sensitivity of two OSPAR indicators for a coastal food web model under offshore wind farm construction Raoux, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Evaluating anthropogenic landscape alterations as wildlife hazards, with wind farms as an example Peter R. Law, Mark Fuller July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
The social dynamics of turbine tourism and recreation: Introducing a mixed-method approach to the study of the first U.S. offshore wind farm Smith, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies Poessel, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Guidance for Commercial Wind Energy Projects Minnesota Department of Natural Resources July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The influence of regulatory framework on environmental impact assessment in the development of offshore wind farms in Spain: Issues, challenges and solutions Salvador, S., Gimeno, L., Larruga, F. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology Kinzie, K. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
How many observation days are needed to reliably describe bird migration? Tanskanen, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Using residential proximity to wind turbines as an alternative exposure measure to investigate the association between wind turbines and human health Barry, R., Sulsky, S., Kreiger, N. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
International experiences with opposition to wind energy siting decisions: lessons for environmental and social appraisal Cashmore, M., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Genetic Mark-Recapture Improves Estimates of Maternity Colony Size for Indiana Bats Oyler-McCance, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing Kastelein, R., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2018 Rodrigues, L. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Life Cycle Environmental Impact of Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms in Texas Chipindula, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Life Cycle Assessment
Shorebird Staging and Migratory Movements at Chaplin and Reed Lakes, Saskatchewan, with Implications for Wind Energy Development Howell, J. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Site Selection for Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwest Coast of South Korea Kim, C., Jang, S., Kim, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Marine Noise Budgets in Practice Faulkner, R., Merchant, N., Martinez, R. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
The impact of on-shore and off-shore wind turbine farms on property prices Jensen, C., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Corcoran, A., Weller, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats

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