Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Considerations for upscaling individual effects of wind energy development towards population-level impacts on wildlife May, R., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
The determinants of wind energy growth in the United States: Drivers and barriers to state-level development Schumacher, K., Yang, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF, Static Device N/A
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Out of sight of wind turbine-Reindeer response to wind farms in operation Skarin, A., Sandström, P, Alam, M. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Behavioral responses by migrating juvenile salmonids to a subsea high-voltage DC power cable Wyman, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Barbastelle bats in a wind farm: are they at risk? Apoznanski, G., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
How many observation days are needed to reliably describe bird migration? Tanskanen, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Using residential proximity to wind turbines as an alternative exposure measure to investigate the association between wind turbines and human health Barry, R., Sulsky, S., Kreiger, N. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
International experiences with opposition to wind energy siting decisions: lessons for environmental and social appraisal Cashmore, M., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Genetic Mark-Recapture Improves Estimates of Maternity Colony Size for Indiana Bats Oyler-McCance, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2018 Rodrigues, L. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Site Selection for Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwest Coast of South Korea Kim, C., Jang, S., Kim, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Marine Noise Budgets in Practice Faulkner, R., Merchant, N., Martinez, R. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Predator attack rates and anti-predator behavior of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Southern California wind farms, USA Keehn, J., Feldman, C. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Estimating wind turbine fatalities using integrated detection trials Smallwood, K. Shawn, et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The Life-Cycle Energy and Environmental Emissions of a Typical Offshore Wind Farm in China Yang, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals Socio-economics, Climate Change
A Socio-Technical Framework for Examining the Consequences of Deforestation: A Case Study of Wind Project Development in Northern Europe Enevoldsen, P. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2017/2018 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Windpower and reindeer Strand, O., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. March 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed Wellig, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm RPS Group March 2018 Website Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Seabirds
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Nearfield Habitat
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Collision sensitive niche profile of the worst affected bird-groups at wind turbine structures in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany Bose, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Numerical modelling of the flight behaviour of bats to estimate the collision risk with wind turbines Muller, C. February 2018 Thesis N/A N/A Bats
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Underwater Assessment of Anthropogenic Noise Sources Using a Field Recording Method Fernandez, A. February 2018 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Male Greater Prairie-Chickens Adjust their Vocalizations in the Presence of Wind Turbine Noise Whalen, C., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Obligations and Aspirations: A Critical Evaluation of Offshore Wind Farm Cumulative Impact Assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 1 - October 15, 2017 Good, R., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (SMCDA) toolbox for Consensus-based Siting of Powerlines and Wind-power plants (ConSite) Hanssen, F., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
At the Heart of a Sustainable Energy Transition: The Public Acceptability of Energy Projects Perlaviciute, G., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management Ölçer, A., et al. January 2018 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Indirect Impacts of Wind Farms on Terrestrial Mammals: Insights from the Disturbance and Exclusion Effects on Wolves (Canis lupus) da Costa, G., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Offshore wind zoning in China: Method and experience Ou, L., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Living in Habitats Affected by Wind Turbines May Result in an Increase in Corticosterone Levels in Ground Dwelling Animals Łopucki, R., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
A New Wave of Marine Evidence-Based Management: Emerging Challenges and Solutions to Transform Monitoring, Evaluating, and Reporting Addison, P., et al. December 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Bird collision with power lines: estimating carcass persistence and detection associated with ground search surveys Borner, L., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Hybrid Renewable Energy System with Minimum Noise Wind Turbine Al-Hamidi, H., Asfar, J. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Will Communities "Open-Up" to Offshore Wind? Lessons Learned from New England Islands in the United States Klain, S., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
How Green is 'Green' Energy? Gibson, L., Wilman, E., Laurance, W. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment
Bird Detection and Species Classification with Time-Lapse Images around a Wind Farm: Dataset Construction and Evaluation Yoshihashi, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Taiwanese white dolphins and offshore wind farms Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
The sustainable worldwide offshore wind energy potential: A systematic review Keivanpour, S., Ramudhin, A., Kadi, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Bats probe the aerosphere during landscape-guided altitudinal flights Voigt, C., Roeleke, M., Bumrungsri, S. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Increasing Evidence that Bats Actively Forage at Wind Turbines Hale, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Understanding the Effectiveness of Acoustic Deterrent Devices on Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), A Low Frequency Cetacean McGarry, T., et al. November 2017 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Factors Associated with Bat Mortality at Wind Energy Facilities in the United States Thompson, M., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Public Participation in Wind Energy Projects Located in Germany: Which Form of Participation is the Key to Acceptance? Langer, K., Decker, T., Menrad, K. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2017, and an analysis of potential impact after eight years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Responses of Two Marine Top Predators to an Offshore Wind Farm Mclean, N., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Method to Estimate the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sourced Electric Production for the Province of Sinop/Turkey Alcan, Y. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Northeast Offshore Wind Regional Market Characterization: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind Grace, R., et al. October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Industrial Wind Turbine Post-Construction Bird and Bat Monitoring: A Policy Framework for Canada Parisé, J., Walker, T. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
From Agricultural Benefits to Aviation Safety: Realizing the Potential of Continent-Wide Radar Networks Bauer, S., et al. October 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds

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