Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
The Theory of Sound Rayleigh, J. April 1877 Book N/A Noise N/A
Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources Wenz, G. May 1962 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Hearing in the Giant Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas Ridgway, S., et al. August 1969 Journal Article N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Final Environmental Impact Statement National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration July 1981 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Waterborne Noise Due to Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plants Janota, C., Thompson, D. July 1983 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise N/A
Potential Impacts from OTEC-Generated Underwater Sounds Rucker, J., Friedl, W. November 1985 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise N/A
Avoidance Responses of Loggerhead Turtles, Caretta caretta, to Low Frequency Sound O'Hara, J., Wilcox, J. June 1990 Journal Article N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Effects of Seismic Shooting on Catch and Catch-Availability of Cod and Haddock Engas, A., et al. August 1993 Report N/A Noise Fish
Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs Ocean Studies Board January 1994 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Influences of Man-Made Noise and Other Human Actions on Cetacean Behaviour Richardson, W., Würsig, B. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Sound Speed and Void Fraction Profiles in the Sea Surface Bubble Layer Buckingham, M. July 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling Würsig, B., Greene, C., Jefferson, T. February 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Masking in Three Pinnipeds: Underwater, Low-Frequency Critical Ratios Southall, B., Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. June 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Detection of Infrasound in Fish and Behavioral Responses to Intense Infrasound in Juvenile Salmonids and European Silver Eels: A Minireview Sand, O., et al. January 2001 Conference Paper N/A Noise Fish
Effects of underwater noise on auditory sensitivity of a cyprinid fish Scholik, A., Yan, H. February 2001 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effect of the Sound Generated by an Acoustic Harassment Device on the Relative Abundance and Distribution of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia Olesiuk, P., et al. October 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
The Effect of Acoustic Harassment Devices on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Bay of Fundy, Canada Johnston, D. November 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
A Digital Acoustic Recording Tag for Measuring the Response of Wild Marine Mammals to Sound Johnson, M., Tyack, P. January 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
High Intensity Anthropogenic Sound Damages Fish Ears McCauley, R., Fewtrell, J., Popper, A. January 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Anthropogenic Sound: Effects on the Behavior and Physiology of Fishes Popper, A., et al. December 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Collision, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Fish and Marine Mammal Audiograms: A summary of available information Nedwell, J., et al. September 2004 Report N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects National Research Council January 2005 Book N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Some Examples of Marine Mammal 'Discomfort Thresholds' in Relation to Man-Made Noise Verboom, W., Kastelein, R. January 2005 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Influence of Underwater Data Transmission Sounds on the Displacement Behaviour of Captive Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. April 2005 Journal Article N/A Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Mitigating, Monitoring and Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Barlow, J., Gisiner, R. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Cox, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Sound Levels Associated with Pile Driving at the Cape Disappointment Boat Launch Facility, Wave Barrier Project Laughlin, J. March 2006 Report N/A Noise N/A
Ship noise and cortisol secretion in European freshwater fishes Wysocki, L., Dittami, J., Ladich, F. April 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Long-range Effects of Airgun Noise on Marine Mammals: Responses as a Function of Received Sound Level and Distance Bain, D., Williams, R. May 2006 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Do Marine Mammals Experience Stress Related to Anthropogenic Noise? Wright, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Noise and Decision Making Possible Implications of Increases in Anthropogenic Noise for Information Processing in Marine Mammals Bateson, M. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Study Supporting Scottish Executive Strategic Environmental Assessment for Marine Renewables Richards, S., Harland, E., Jones, S. January 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine renewable energy and cetaceans Dolman, S., Simmonds, M., Green, M. January 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Lethal and Physical Injury of Marine Mammals and Requirements for Passive Acoustic Monitoring Parvin, S., Nedwell, J., Harland, E. February 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of boat noise on the behaviour of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus in the Mediterranean Sea Sarà, G., et al. February 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Marine Mammals and Noise: A Sound Approach to Research and Management Marine Mammal Commission March 2007 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Responses of Cetaceans to Anthropogenic Noise Nowacek, D., et al. April 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Effects of Noise on the Aquatic Environment Walmsley, D. August 2007 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Assessment in the Messina Strait - Italy Nauta-rcs, CIBRA October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Noise N/A
A Validation of the dBht as a Measure of the Behavioural and Auditory Effects of Underwater Noise Nedwell, J., et al. October 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations Southall, B., et al. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Swimming behavior of roach (rutilus rutilus) and three-spined stickleback (gasterosteus aculeatus) in response to wind power noise and single-tone frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Short- and long-term changes in right whale calling behavior: The potential effects of noise on acoustic communication Parks, S., Clark, C. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Ocean Noise On Cetaceans And Implications For Management Weilgart, L. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Brief Review of Anthropogenic Sound in the Oceans Studds, G., Wright, A. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Underwater Surf Noise Near Sea Coasts of Different Types Bardyshev, V. January 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Nearfield Habitat
Startle response of captive North Sea fish species to underwater tones between 0.1 and 64 kHz Kastelein, A., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Too loud to talk?: Do wind turbine-related sounds affect harbour seal communication? Lucke, K., et al. March 2008 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Temporal Patterns In Ambient Noise Of Biological Origin From A Shallow Water Temperate Reef Radford, C., et al. May 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The Influence of 70 and 120 kHz Tonal Signals on the Behavior of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a Floating Pen Kastelein, R., et al. May 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Implications for Marine Mammals of Large-Scale Changes in the Marine Acoustic Environment Tyack, P. June 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Hatch, L., et al. November 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Detection of Tonal Signals Between 0.125 and 100 kHz by Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. November 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Overview Of The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Underwater Sound In The Marine Environment Götz, T., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
The Acoustics And Acoustic Behavior Of The California Spiny Lobster (Panulirus Interruptus) Patek, S., Shipp, L., Staaterman, E. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Barging Effects On Sensory Systems Of Chinook Salmon Smolts Halvorsen, M., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine Noise Fish
Vessel Noise Effects On Delphinid Communication Jensen, F., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Case Study: The Royal Norwegian Navy Underwater Acoustic Noise Measurement of Vessels Brüel & Kjær January 2009 Report N/A Noise N/A
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy (General) Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Technical Guidance for Assessment and Mitigation of the Hydroacoustic Effects of Pile Driving on Fish Oestman, R., et al. February 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Narrow Noise Bands Between 0.2 and 80 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. April 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: State of Art and Uncertainties Patricio, S., Moura, A., Simas, T. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after Exposure to Seismic Airgun Stimuli Lucke, K., et al. June 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Listening In Riddoch, L. August 2009 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices Patricio, S., Soares, S., Sarmento, A. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Behavioral Responses of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans to Controlled Exposures of Simulated Sonar and Other Sounds Southall, B., et al. October 2009 Presentation N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects Of Ambient And Boat Noise On Hearing And Communication In Three Fish Species Living In A Marine Protected Area (Miramare, Italy) Codarin, A., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Anthropogenic and natural sources of ambient noise in the ocean Hildebrand, J. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
The Effect of Signal Duration on the Underwater Hearing Thresholds of Two Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Single Tonal Signals Between 0.2 and 40 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Nearfield Habitat
Aversiveness of Sounds in Phocid Seals: Psycho-Physiological Factors, Learning Processes and Motivation Götz, T., Janik, V. January 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Costs of Chronic Noise Exposure for Terrestrial Organisms Barber, J., Crooks, K., Fristrup, K. March 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise Parks, S., et al. April 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Noisy Spring: The Impact of Globally Rising Underwater Sound Levels on Fish Slabbekoorn, H., et al. July 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish

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