Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
The Sensitivity of UK Marine Mammal Populations to Marine Renewables Developments Harwood, J., King, S. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Understanding the Potential for Marine Megafauna Entanglement Risk from Marine Renewable Energy Developments [Presentation] Benjamins, S., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Overview of a Simulation Approach to Assessing Environmental Risk of Sound Exposure to Marine Mammals Donovan, C., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals Harwood, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland Dolman, S., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Scottish Government Demonstration Strategy: Trialling Methods for Tracking the Fine Scale Underwater Movements of Marine Mammals in Areas of Marine Renewable Energy Development Sparling, C., et al. June 2016 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Temporal Patterns in Habitat Use by Small Cetaceans at an Oceanographically Dynamic Marine Renewable Energy Test Site in the Celtic Sea Cox, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Evaluation of a Passive Acoustic Monitoring Network for Harbor Porpoise in California Jacobson, E., Forney, K., Harvey, J. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Marine Mammals
MERiFIC 3.3.3: Technical Report Biodiversity Assessment - Methods for Surveying Marine Mammal Biodiversity around Small Islands Ingram, S. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Fine-Scale Foraging Movements by Fish-Eating Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) Relate to the Vertical Distributions and Escape Responses of Salmonid Prey (Oncorhynchus spp.) Wright, B., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Analysis of the Possible Displacement of Bird and Marine Mammal Species Related to the Installation and Operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems Long, C. January 2017 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Observations and Tracking of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) with Shore-Based X-Band Marine Radar at a Marine Energy Test Site McCann, D., Bell, P. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An evaluation of gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) mortality incidental to fishing operations in British Columbia, Canada Baird, R., et al. January 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Review of Cetacean and Pinniped Mortality in Coastal Fisheries Along the West Coast of the USA and Canada and the East Coast of the Russian Federation Barlow, J., et al. November 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Understanding the co-occurrence of large whales and commercial fixed gear fisheries off the west coast of the United States Saez, L., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Effects of fishing rope strength on the severity of large whale entanglements Knowlton, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Seasonal and Diel Patterns in Cetacean Use and Foraging at a Potential Marine Renewable Energy Site Nuuttila, H., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimating humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entanglement rates on the basis of scar evidence Robbins, J., Mattila, D. May 2004 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Entanglements of Baleen Whales in Fishing Gear off Southern California Heyning, J., Lewis, T. January 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics
Cetacean entanglement in fishing gear Hofman R. March 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
How we all kill whales Moore, M. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Whale Entanglements Off California Fact Sheet National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2014 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Mechanical properties of harbor seal skin and blubber a test of anisotropy Grear, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Particles as Porpoise - Applying CFD Results to Environmental Interactions Lake, T., Masters, I., Croft, N. May 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Methods for Individual Based Modelling of Harbour Porpoise Croft, N., Masters, I., Lake, T. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Algorithms for Marine Mammal Modelling and an Application in Ramsey Sound Lake, T., Masters, I., Croft, N. January 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
The Marine Soundscape and the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Mammals Erbe, C. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Testing the Effectiveness of an Acoustic Deterrent for Grey Whales Along the Oregon Coast Lagerquist, B., Windsor, M., Mate, B. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Detection of Visual Signatures of Marine Mammals and Fish within Marine Renewable Energy Farms using Multibeam Imaging Sonar Francisco, F., Sundberg, J. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine renewable energy and cetaceans Dolman, S., Simmonds, M., Green, M. January 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviours in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Optimising multiple multibeam sonars to assess marine life interactions with an underwater kite Lieber, L., et al. August 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Marine Mammals
Evaluating Effects of Stressors - Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Anderson, R., Copping, A., Van Cleve, F. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Collision Risks Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds Wilson, B., et al. March 2007 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Species: A Literature Review Slater, M. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites Horne, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Guidance on Survey and Monitoring in Relation to Marine Renewable Deployments in Scotland - Draft Reports Royal Haskoning September 2011 Report Marine Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Lethal and Physical Injury of Marine Mammals and Requirements for Passive Acoustic Monitoring Parvin, S., Nedwell, J., Harland, E. February 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Overview Of The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Underwater Sound In The Marine Environment Götz, T., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Review of Recent Literature Relevant to the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices 2011 Kropp, R. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Target Strength of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca): Measurement and Modeling Xu, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tracking Marine Mammals Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Using Active Sonar Hastie, G. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
An International Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Copping, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network For Marine And Hydrokinetic Energy Projects Stein, P., Edson, P. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Conceptual Models of Potential Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Impacts on Biological Resources Grippo, M., Hlohowskyj, I. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
MERiFIC 3.3.1: Collaborative Field Study Programme Sotta, C., Witt, M., Le Niliot, P. February 2014 Report Marine Energy general Noise Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MERiFIC 3.3.2: Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Small Cetaceans in the Isles of Scilly Pikesley, S., Godley, B., Witt, M. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Symmetry: The Key to Diagnosing Propeller Strike Injuries in Sea Mammals Byard, R., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
The Assessment of Lethal Propeller Strike Injuries in Sea Mammals Byard, R., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
First Specific Biodiversity Assessment in the Portuguese Pilot Zone for Marine Renewables Coelho, H., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Applying Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Outlining Ecosystem Effects of Ocean Energy Technologies Hammar, L., Gullström, M. January 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Stream Analytical Processing of Acoustic Signals for Cetacean Studies and Environmental Monitoring of Ocean Energy Conversion Devices Kolar, H., et al. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Simulating Harbour Porpoise Habitat Use in a 3D Tidal Environment Lake, T., Masters, I., Croft, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on schooling herring (Clupea harengus) using underwater tail-slaps: Kinematic analyses of field observations Domenici, P., et al. December 1999 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Optimising multiple multibeam sonars to assess marine life interactions with an underwater kite Lieber, L., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Detecting Potential and Actual Turbine-Marine Life Interactions: A Call for the Development of Best Practices Redden, A. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines: What are the Issues of Concern and how are they being Resolved? Wilson, B., Hastie, G., Benjamins, S. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals
Tracking Technologies for Quantifying Marine Mammal Interactions with Tidal Turbines: Pitfalls and Possibilities Hastie, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals
Advancing a Key Consenting Risk for Tidal Energy: The Risk of Marine Mammal Collision for In-Stream Tidal Energy Devices Booth, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Understanding the Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with a Tidal Turbine Copping, A., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Tidal Energy, Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals Carter, C., Wilson, B., Burrows, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Tracking Porpoise Underwater Movements in Tidal Rapids using Drifting Hydrophone Arrays. Filling a Key Information Gap for Assessing Collision Risk Gordon, J., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Movement Patterns of Seals in Tidally Energetic Sites: Implications for Renewable Energy Development Hastie, G., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines: Understanding True Collision Risk Sparling, C., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbor Seal - Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Wood, J., Joy, R., Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Temporal Patterns in Minas Basin Intertidal Weir Fish Catches and Presence of Harbour Porpoise during April - August 2013 Baker, M., Reed, M., Redden, A. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Coordinated Action Plan for Addressing Collision Risk for Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines Hutchison, I., Copping, A. August 2016 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Shapinsay Sound Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Multi-beam Echosounder Data: SGDS Project

Atlantis Resources

February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Passive Acoustic Monitoring Data: SGDS Project

Atlantis Resources

February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Pentland Firth MeyGen Harbour Seal Telemetry Data

Atlantis Resources

October 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform Multi-beam and Echosounder Data

Atlantis Resources

October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Video Camera Data

Atlantis Resources

November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Strain Gauge Data

Atlantis Resources

November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan N/A November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing, Recreation
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Video Monitoring Data of Wildlife Interactions

Aquatera Ltd

May 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data Informing Video Analysis

Aquatera Ltd

June 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data of Seal Haul-Outs During the Breeding Season

Aquatera Ltd

June 2010 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Potential Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with Tidal Turbines Copping, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data

University of Aberdeen

June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data

University of Aberdeen

June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness Wildlife Observation Data

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC)

July 2005 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Challenges and Opportunities in Monitoring the Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices on Marine Vertebrates Fox, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals

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