Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Power from the Brave New Ocean: Marine Renewable Energy and Ecological Risks Hammar, L. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Fish, Socio-economics
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Contributions of marine infrastructures to marine planning and protected area networking Shabtay, A., Portman, M., Carmel, Y. June 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Coordination and Cooperation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy Maier, N. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics
Involving the Public in the Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Portman, M. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Strengthening the Role of Science in Marine Governance through Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Wright, G. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine governance in an industrialised ocean: A case study of the emerging marine renewable energy industry Wright, G. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Assessing use-use interactions at sea: A theoretical framework for spatial decision support tools facilitating co-location in maritime spatial planning Bonnevie, I., Hansen, H., Schrøder, L. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
International good practices for facilitating transboundary collaboration in Marine Spatial Planning Kull, M., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The mechanics of blue growth: Management of oceanic natural resource use with multiple, interacting sectors Klinger, D., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Vitamine ENA: A framework for the development of ecosystem-based indicators for decision makers Safi, G., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method Ho, L., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales Welsh Assembly Government February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine Spatial Planning: A Step-by-Step Approach toward Ecosystem-based Management Ehler, C., Douvere, F. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine Spatial Planning - Current Status 2014: National Planning in Sweden's Territorial Waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Research frontiers in sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems in a time of climate crisis Kılkış, Ş., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Renewable energy projections for climate change mitigation: An analysis of uncertainty and errors Indra al Irsyad, M., Halog, A., Nepal, R. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Human dimensions of marine hydrokinetic energies: Current knowledge and research gaps Ruano-Chamorro, C., Castilla, J., Gelcich, S. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Practical Approaches and Advances in Spatial Tools to Achieve Multi-Objective Marine Spatial Planning Lombard, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
From identification of compatibilities and conflicts to reaching marine spatial allocation agreements. Review of actions required and relevant tools and processes Kyriazi, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit Rudolph, D., Haggett, C., Aitken, M. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-production in distributed generation: renewable energy and creating space for fitting infrastructure within landscapes Wolsink, M. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Legal and Policy
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Multi-use of the sea: A wide array of opportunities from site-specific cases across Europe Bocci, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Love me, love me not: Perceptions on the links between the energy sector and biodiversity conservation Moreira, F. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Public engagement with offshore renewable energy: A critical review Wiersma, B., Devine-Wright, P. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine spatial planning Ehler, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning Greenhill, L. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine spatial planning and stakeholder collaboration Brooks, P., Jedele, T. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
The future of marine spatial planning Bradshaw, C., Greenhill, L., Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Northeast Ocean Data Northeast Regional Ocean Council January 2009 Database Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Spatial targeting, synergies and scale: Exploring the criteria of smart practices for siting renewable energy projects Frantal, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Sustainably reconciling offshore renewable energy with Natura 2000 sites: An interim adaptive management framework Le Lièvre, C. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
AMBEMAR-DSS: A decision support system for the environmental impact assessment of marine renewable energies Guinda, X., et al. June 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Critical challenges and capacity building needs for renewable energy deployment in Pacific Small Island Developing States (Pacific SIDS) Lucas, H., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Building the Blue Economy: The Role of Marine Spatial Planning in Facilitating Offshore Renewable Energy Development Young, M. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Who cares? European attitudes towards marine and coastal environments Potts, T., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Social licence in the marine sector: A review of understanding and application Kelly, R., Pecl, G., Fleming, A. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence publics' awareness on the different forms of renewable energy sources Karytsas, S., Theodoropoulou, H. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Co-location opportunities for renewable energies and aquaculture facilities in the Canary Archipelago Weiss, C., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Improving policies and regulations for environmental-friendly ocean renewable energy development in Korea Park, J., Kim, T. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
An Offshore Renewable Energy Environmental Research & Innovation Strategy for the UK Natural Environment Research Council December 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-on. Work package Report 6: shared, plural and cultural values of ecosystems Kenter, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Human Dimensions
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Smythe, T., McCann, J. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
The influence of extractive activities on public support for renewable energy policy Olson-Hazboun, S., Howe, P., Leiserowitz, A. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Stakeholder Engagement
Biodiversity Issues Should Be Better Taken into Account in the Energy Transition Hallosserie, A., et al. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Energy Sources: A Review of Lifecycle Considerations Amponsah, N., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
U.S. National Debate Topic 2014-2015: The Ocean H.W. Wilson Company January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy Zanuttigh, B., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The role of maritime spatial planning on the advance of blue energy in the European Union García, P., Sanabria, J., Ruiz, J. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK Gove, B., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Where Are All the People? A Study on the Integration of Socioeconomics and Marine Conservation Planning Feldman, L. May 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Clean energy that safeguards ecosystems and livelihoods: Integrated assessments to unleash full sustainable potential for renewable energy Athanas, A., McCormick, N. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Social & Economic Data
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement

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