Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


As an alternative to the Knowledge Base, check out the Map Viewer to access geotagged content in a spatial view.


Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Future policy implications of tidal energy array interactions Waldman, S., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Assessment and Control of OTEC Ecological Impacts Wilde, P., Sandusky, J., Jassby, A. December 1978 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
From ocean sprawl to blue-green infrastructure – A UK perspective on an issue of global significance Evans, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Applying Risk Science and Stakeholder Engagement to Overcome Environmental Barriers to Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects Copping, A., Anderson, R., Van Cleve, F. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine governance in an industrialised ocean: A case study of the emerging marine renewable energy industry Wright, G. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The mechanics of blue growth: Management of oceanic natural resource use with multiple, interacting sectors Klinger, D., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Practical Experience of Sectoral Planning for Marine Renewable Energy Development in Scotland Davies, I., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada [Presentation] Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Environment Effects of Ocean Energy Development & Its Management Countermeasures in China Ling, O. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
GHYDRO: Methodology Guide for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Technologies at Sea Lejart, M. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Councils in Partnership: A Local Authority Perspective on Marine Spatial Planning Turnbull, S. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Resolving Issues with Environmental Impact Assessment of Marine Renewable Energy Installations Maclean, I., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
Better Together: The Implications of Tidal Resource Interactions from Resource Calculation to Policy and Governance Woolf, D., Easton, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Establishing a legal research agenda for ocean energy Wright, G., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit Rudolph, D., Haggett, C., Aitken, M. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-production in distributed generation: renewable energy and creating space for fitting infrastructure within landscapes Wolsink, M. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Legal and Policy
A Review of the Environmental Impacts for Marine and Hydrokinetic Projects to Inform Regulatory Permitting: Summary Findings from the 2015 Workshop on Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies, Washington, D.C. Baring-Gould, E., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy Updated on Barriers and Recommendations O'Hagan, A. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Regulatory Introduction: Roles and Responsibilities within the Permitting Process West, A. May 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Learning from Early Commercial Tidal Energy Projects in the Puget Sound, Washington and the Pentland Firth, Scotland McMillin, N. January 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Pacific Region Marine Renewables Environmental Regulatory Workshop Report Copping, A., et al. March 2017 Workshop Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Legal System for the Development of Marine Renewable Energy in China Chang, Y., Wang, N. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.6 - Final Work Package Report: Consenting Procedures Review with Guidelines for Expansion to Larger Projects and Approval Process Streamlining, Incorporating the Findings of Interim Report and Feedback from Workshop D Simas, T., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.2: Reports of Interactive Meetings with Policy Makers Magagna, D., Rousseau, N. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wave energy in Europe: Views on experiences and progress to date O'Hagan, A., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Love me, love me not: Perceptions on the links between the energy sector and biodiversity conservation Moreira, F. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Consenting ocean energy projects: issues, challenges and opportunities O'Hagen, A., Wright, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Ensuring the sustainable development of ocean energy technologies through environmental assessment laws and policies Wright, G., Willsteed, E., O'Hagan, A. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Climate change and renewable energy from the ocean and tides: Calming the sea of regulatory uncertainty Leary, D., Esteban, M. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Spatial targeting, synergies and scale: Exploring the criteria of smart practices for siting renewable energy projects Frantal, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The influence of maritime spatial planning on the development of marine renewable energies in Portugal and Spain: Legal challenges and opportunities Salvador, S., Gimeno, L., Larruga, F. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Sustainably reconciling offshore renewable energy with Natura 2000 sites: An interim adaptive management framework Le Lièvre, C. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
National Policy Framework for Marine Renewable Energy within the United Kingdom Vantoch-Wood, A., et al. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The current state of marine renewable energy policy in China Yang, X., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Current Policy and Technology for Tidal Current Energy in Korea Ko, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Challenges and Opportunities for Ecosystem-Based Management and Marine Spatial Planning in the Irish Sea O'Higgins, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Politics and Power in Marine Spatial Planning Flannery, W., Clarke, J., McAteer, B. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom Kolios, A., Read, G. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore underwater substation for wave energy converter arrays Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Third-Level Education Needs of the Ocean Energy Industry Marine Renewables Industry Association August 2011 Report Marine Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Funding the Development of the Ocean Energy Industry in Ireland Marine Renewables Industry Association February 2016 Report Marine Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Maritime Infrastructure Development Priorities to Support Ireland’s Future Ocean Energy Industry Marine Renewables Industry Association December 2014 Report Marine Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
The Opportunity for Co-Operation and Collaboration between Ireland and Scotland in Ocean Energy Marine Renewables Industry Association December 2013 Report Marine Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Non-Financial and Non-Technical Barriers to the Development of the Ocean Energy Sector in Ireland Marine Renewables Industry Association February 2017 Report Marine Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
R and D and Ocean Energy: A review of Research and Development in Ocean Energy in the Republic of Ireland Marine Renewables Industry Association September 2012 Report Marine Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Improving policies and regulations for environmental-friendly ocean renewable energy development in Korea Park, J., Kim, T. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Decision framework for ocean thermal energy plant site selection from a sustainability perspective: The case of China Zhang, J., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Increased integration between innovative ocean energy and the EU habitats, species and water protection rules through Maritime Spatial Planning van Hees, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Smythe, T., McCann, J. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Governance challenges of marine renewable energy developments in the U.S. - Creating the enabling conditions for successful project development Lange, M., Page, G., Cummins, V. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Biodiversity Issues Should Be Better Taken into Account in the Energy Transition Hallosserie, A., et al. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The Role of the Law of the Sea in Marine Spatial Planning Pyć, D. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK Gove, B., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy on OES Member Countries WavEC Offshore Renewables February 2015 Report Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ensuring Co-benefits for Biodiversity, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Smith, R., et al. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Ocean Energy: Governance Challenges for Wave and Tidal Stream Technologies Wright, G., Kerr, S., Johnson, K. January 2018 Book Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Enabling Siting and Permitting of Marine Energy Devices, in Conjunction with Engineering Design and Deployment Strategies Copping, A., Geerlofs, S., Hanna, L. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Review of Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy in Selected European Union Member States Simas, T., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Scotland's National Marine Plan - A Single Framework for Managing Our Seas Marine Scotland March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine Renewable Energy - The Essential Legal Considerations Chang, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Global environmental regulation of offshore energy production: Searching for legal standards in ocean governance Giannopoulos, N. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Renewables, Shipping, and Protected Species: A Vanishing Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland Dolman, S., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
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