Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Entanglements of Baleen Whales in Fishing Gear off Southern California Heyning, J., Lewis, T. January 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics
Cetacean entanglement in fishing gear Hofman R. March 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Macrotidal Estuaries: A Region of Collision Between Migratory Marine Animals and Tidal Power Development Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish, Marine Mammals
A Review of Cetacean and Pinniped Mortality in Coastal Fisheries Along the West Coast of the USA and Canada and the East Coast of the Russian Federation Barlow, J., et al. November 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on schooling herring (Clupea harengus) using underwater tail-slaps: Kinematic analyses of field observations Domenici, P., et al. December 1999 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An evaluation of gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) mortality incidental to fishing operations in British Columbia, Canada Baird, R., et al. January 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Estimating humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entanglement rates on the basis of scar evidence Robbins, J., Mattila, D. May 2004 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Fishing
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Fall of Warness Wildlife Observation Data

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC)

July 2005 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Marine renewable energy and cetaceans Dolman, S., Simmonds, M., Green, M. January 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Lethal and Physical Injury of Marine Mammals and Requirements for Passive Acoustic Monitoring Parvin, S., Nedwell, J., Harland, E. February 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Collision Risks Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds Wilson, B., et al. March 2007 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Distribution and Movement Patterns of Gray Whales Off Central Oregon: Shore-Based Observations from Yaquina During the 2007/2008 Migration Mate, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Scoping Report Tidal Energy November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Overview Of The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Underwater Sound In The Marine Environment Götz, T., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Northeast Ocean Data Northeast Regional Ocean Council January 2009 Database Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Volume I: Environmental Assessment AECOM June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Billia Croo Wildlife Observation Data

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC)

June 2009 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Listening In Riddoch, L. August 2009 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Proposed Torr Head Tidal Scheme Environmental Scoping Report THETIS Energy September 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site Andersen, K., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Non-Technical Summary of the Environmental Statement Tidal Energy October 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
La Rance Tidal Power Plant: 40-Year Operation Feedback - Lessons Learnt de Laleu, V. October 2009 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Installation of Tidal Turbine Array at Kyle Rhea, Scotland: Scoping Study Bedford, G., Tarrant, D., Trendall, J. March 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data of Seal Haul-Outs During the Breeding Season

Aquatera Ltd

June 2010 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Sound of Islay Environmental Statement ScottishPower Renewables July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Species: A Literature Review Slater, M. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Megavertebrates and Fishery Resources in the Nantucket Sound - Muskeget Channel Area Leeney, R., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Marine Soundscape and the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Mammals Erbe, C. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Evaluating Effects of Stressors - Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Anderson, R., Copping, A., Van Cleve, F. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Reedsport OPT Environmental Assessment Ocean Power Technologies December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
FORCE Environmental Effects Monitoring Report September 2009 to January 2011 FORCE January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Applying Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Outlining Ecosystem Effects of Ocean Energy Technologies Hammar, L., Gullström, M. January 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Detection of Marine Mammals and Effects Monitoring at the NSPI (OpenHydro) Turbine Site in the Minas Passage during 2010 Tollit, D., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Studies of Marine Mammals in Welsh High Tidal Waters Gordon, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Making Marine Renewable Energy Mainstream Murray, M. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
SeaGen Tidal Turbine - An Exercise in Adaptive Management Ainsworth, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Scapa Flow Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Shapinsay Sound Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Land-Based Infrared Imagery for Marine Mammal Detection Graber, J. April 2011 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Oyster 2 Wave Energy Project Environmental Statement Aquamarine Power June 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Stream Analytical Processing of Acoustic Signals for Cetacean Studies and Environmental Monitoring of Ocean Energy Conversion Devices Kolar, H., et al. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance on Survey and Monitoring in Relation to Marine Renewable Deployments in Scotland - Draft Reports Royal Haskoning September 2011 Report Marine Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Review of Recent Literature Relevant to the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices 2011 Kropp, R. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Environmental Aspects of Developing Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Kavanagh, P., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites Horne, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Marine Renewables Industry in Relation to Marine Mammals: Synthesis of Work Undertaken by the ICES Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) Murphy, S., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the risks to marine mammal populations from renewable energy devices: an interim approach Lusseau, D., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Target Strength of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca): Measurement and Modeling Xu, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Collar, C., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Symmetry: The Key to Diagnosing Propeller Strike Injuries in Sea Mammals Byard, R., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
The Assessment of Lethal Propeller Strike Injuries in Sea Mammals Byard, R., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
First Specific Biodiversity Assessment in the Portuguese Pilot Zone for Marine Renewables Coelho, H., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general N/A Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data

University of Aberdeen

June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data

University of Aberdeen

June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Annex I: Movements and Diving Behaviour of Juvenile Grey Seals in Areas of High Tidal Energy Thompson, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

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