Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after Exposure to Seismic Airgun Stimuli Lucke, K., et al. June 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Noisy Spring: The Impact of Globally Rising Underwater Sound Levels on Fish Slabbekoorn, H., et al. July 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Cetacean Stock Assessments in Relation to Exploration and Production Industry Activity and Other Human Pressures: Review and Data Needs Thomsen, F., et al. February 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Cetacean Noise Criteria Revisited in the Light of Proposed Exposure Limits for Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., Wright, A., Madsen, P. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Effect of Wind-Generated Bubbles on Sea-Surface Backscattering at 940 Hz van Vossen, R., Ainslie, M. November 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Determining the Detection Thresholds for Harbor Porpoise Clicks of Autonomous Data Loggers, the Timing Porpoise Detectors Verfuss, U., et al. February 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Fishing, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals Erbe, C., Dunlop, R., Dolman, S. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Man-Made Sound on Fishes Hawkins, A., Popper, A. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Animals Slabbekoorn, H., et al. August 2018 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Estimation of Acoustic Particle Motion and Source Bearing Using a Drifting Hydrophone Array Near a River Current Turbine to Assess Disturbances to Fish Murphy, P. January 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Riverine Noise Fish
Modelling the Propagation of Underwater Acoustic Signals of a Marine Energy Device Using Finite Element Method Ikpekha, O., Soberon, F., Daniels, S. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Hearing Thresholds of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for Playbacks of Seal Scarer Signals, and Effects of the Signals on Behavior Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic Noise Measurement Methodology for the Billia Croo Wave Energy Test Site Lepper, P., et al. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Annex A: Summary of Operational Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter System at the EMEC Wave Energy Test Site May 2011: Comparison of Pelamis System Operational and Baseline Noise Measurements Lepper, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise N/A
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Comparison of Underwater Background Noise during Spring and Neap Tide in a High Tidal Current Site: Ramsey Sound Broudic, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
How Wrong Can You Be? Can a Simple Spreading Formula Be Used to Predict Worst-Case Underwater Sound Levels? Duncan, A., Parsons, M. November 2011 Conference Paper N/A Noise N/A
Shapinsay Sound Tidal Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Scapa Flow Wave Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Hydroacoustic Measurements of the Noise Radiated from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project and Project WESA Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Additional Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Modelling Techniques for Underwater Noise Generated by Tidal Turbines in Shallow Waters Lloyd, T., Turnock, S., Humphrey, V. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Measurement of Long-Term Ambient Noise and Tidal Turbine Levels in the Bay of Fundy Martin, B., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Baseline Measurement of Underwater Noise Under the SURGE Project Soares, C., et al. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Measurement of Radiated Ship Noise Wang, L., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper N/A Noise Socio-economics, Navigation
Optimising Array Form for Energy Extraction and Environmental Benefit (EBAO) Smith, H. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general Noise Ecosystem
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Marine Mammals: A Review of Temporary Threshold Shift Studies from 1996 to 2015 Finneran, J. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Marine Life: Publication Patterns, New Discoveries, and Future Directions in Research and Management Williams, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
The Theory of Sound Rayleigh, J. April 1877 Book N/A Noise N/A
MR8.1 Tests of Acoustic Signals for Aversive Sound Mitigation with Harbour Seals Gordon, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Soundscape characterization in a dynamic acoustic environment: Grand Passage, Nova Scotia, a planned in-stream tidal energy site Lombardi, A., Hay, A., Barclay, D. September 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise N/A
Assessing the exposure of animals to acoustic disturbance: Towards an understanding of the population consequences of disturbance Costa, D., et al. December 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Review on behavioral impacts of aquatic noise on crustaceans Tidau, S., Briffa, M. December 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Exposure of benthic invertebrates to sediment vibration: From laboratory experiments to outdoor simulated pile-driving Roberts, L., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Best available science? Are NOAA Fisheries marine mammal noise exposure guidelines up to date? Stocker, M. May 2019 Conference Paper N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Ocean Science Magazine Brown, W., et al. September 2019 Magazine Article N/A Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 3: Acoustic Characteristics Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Acoustic Characterization of a Hydrokinetic Turbine Polagye, B., Murphy, P. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Riverine Noise N/A
Velocity-Pressure Solution to Modeling 3D Noise Propagation from an Array of Current-Energy Converters Johnson, C., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Sound Science: Maintaining Numerical and Statistical Standards in the Pursuit of Noise Exposure Criteria for Marine Mammals Wright, A. November 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
An Italian Proposal on the Monitoring of Underwater Noise: Relationship Between the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning Directive (MSP) Maccarrone, V., et al. December 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea): Assessing the Potential Effect of Anthropogenic Noise Piniak, W., et al. September 2012 Report N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Understanding the Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Cox, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Airborne and Underwater Noise Assessment at the Pico OWC Wave Power Plant de Moura, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Field Calibration a Tool for Acoustic Noise Prediction: The CALCOM'10 Data Set Felisberto, P., Jesus, S., Martins, N. November 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Classification of Three-Dimensional Ocean Features using Three-Dimensional Empirical Orthogonal Functions Martins, N., et al. July 2010 Conference Paper N/A Noise N/A
From Oceanographic to Acoustic Forecasting: Acoustic Model Calibration using in Situ Acoustic Measures Martins, N., Jesus, S. November 2010 Conference Paper N/A Noise N/A
Characterizing Large River Sounds: Providing Context for Understanding the Environmental Effects of Noise Produced by Hydrokinetic Turbines Bevelhimer, M., Deng, D., Scherelis, C. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Noise Socio-economics, Navigation
The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II Popper, A., Hawkins, A. January 2016 Book N/A Noise N/A
Communication Masking in Marine Mammals: A Review and Research Strategy Erbe, C., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds [Presentation] Hawkins, A. April 2014 Presentation N/A Noise Fish
Assessing the Impact of Man-Made Underwater Noise from Marine Renewable in the Outer Hebrides Ward, P. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Seasonal and Diel Variability of the Underwater Noise in the Baltic Sea Klusek, Z., Lisimenka, A. April 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
A Tool to Predict the Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Fish Bruintjes, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation N/A Noise Fish
An Overview of a Simulation Approach to Assessing Environmental Risk of Sound Exposure to Marine Mammals Donovan, C., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Noise Generated from an Array of Current Energy Converters Halfa, E., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Tidal Energy, Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals Carter, C., Wilson, B., Burrows, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise N/A
Mapping Underwater Sound in the Dutch Part of the North Sea Sertlek, H., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter N/A Noise N/A
Anthropogenic Sources of Underwater Sound can Modify how Sediment-Dwelling Invertebrates Mediate Ecosystem Properties Solan, M., et al. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Renewables, Shipping, and Protected Species: A Vanishing Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters Gedamke, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter N/A Noise N/A
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Donovan, C., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals Harwood, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
How Might We Assess and Manage the Effects of Underwater Noise on Populations of Marine Animals? Tasker, M. January 2016 Book Chapter N/A Noise Ecosystem
Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland Dolman, S., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Soundscape and Noise Exposure Monitoring in a Marine Protected Area Using Shipping Data and Time-Lapse Footage Merchant, N., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter N/A Noise N/A
Auditory Sensitivity in Aquatic Animals Lucke, K., et al. June 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessing Auditory Evoked Potentials of Wild Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Ruser, A., et al. July 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Modelling the Propagation of Underwater Acoustic Emissions for Condition Monitoring of Marine Renewable Energy Walsh, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Use of Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Motion Analysis for Studying the Impacts of Underwater Noise upon Free Ranging Fish and Implications for Marine Energy Management Roberts, L., Perez-Dominguez, R., Elliott, M. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Interim Sound Threshold Guidance National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2016 Website N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing: Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Marine Fisheries Service July 2016 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
A Sound Approach to Assessing the Impact of Underwater Noise on Marine Fishes and Invertebrates Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Changes in Fish Catch Rates in the Presence of Air Gun Sounds in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Streever, B., et al. December 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Socio-economics, Fishing
Monitoring the Condition of Marine Renewable Energy Devices through Underwater Acoustic Emissions: Case study of a Wave Energy Converter in Falmouth Bay, UK Walsh, J., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Underwater Noise Propagation Models and its Application in Renewable Energy Parks: WaveRoller Case Study Rocha, A. October 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Stochasticism in Noise Generated by an Array of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices Hafla, E., Johnson, E., Roberts, J. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise N/A
A Simulation Approach to Assessing Environmental Risk of Sound Exposure to Marine Mammals Donovan, C., et al. February 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Coupled Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sound in Coastal Ocean for Renewable Ocean Energy Development Long, W., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Acoustic characterization of Mutriku OWC Plant Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Sound Propagation Through the Stochastic Ocean Henyey, F. May 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Onset of Barotrauma Injuries Related to Number of Pile Driving Strike Exposures in Hybrid Striped Bass Casper, B., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish

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