Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


As an alternative to the Knowledge Base, check out the Map Viewer to access geotagged content in a spatial view.


Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
The wave-powered adaptable monitoring package: hardware design, installation, and deployment Joslin, J., et al. August 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
An International Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Copping, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Criteria and Case Definitions for Serious Injury and Death of Pinnipeds and Cetaceans Caused by Anthropogenic Trauma Moore, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Operational Noise from Tidal Turbine Arrays and the Assessment of Collision Risk with Marine Mammals Marmo, B. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
SeaGen Tidal Turbine - An Exercise in Adaptive Management Ainsworth, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Conceptual Models of Potential Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Impacts on Biological Resources Grippo, M., Hlohowskyj, I. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems N/A April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
A Digital Acoustic Recording Tag for Measuring the Response of Wild Marine Mammals to Sound Johnson, M., Tyack, P. January 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A New Context-Based Approach to Assess Marine Mammal Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Sounds Ellison, W., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis Ren, H., et al. May 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Basic Audiometric Functions in Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) at Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain Lucke, K., Finneran, J., Houser, D. March 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Behavioral Responses of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans to Controlled Exposures of Simulated Sonar and Other Sounds Southall, B., et al. October 2009 Presentation N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away Risch, D., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Do Marine Mammals Experience Stress Related to Anthropogenic Noise? Wright, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of the Sound Generated by an Acoustic Harassment Device on the Relative Abundance and Distribution of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia Olesiuk, P., et al. October 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Noise and Decision Making Possible Implications of Increases in Anthropogenic Noise for Information Processing in Marine Mammals Bateson, M. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound Hildebrand, J. January 2005 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Implications for Marine Mammals of Large-Scale Changes in the Marine Acoustic Environment Tyack, P. June 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Lethal and Physical Injury of Marine Mammals and Requirements for Passive Acoustic Monitoring Parvin, S., Nedwell, J., Harland, E. February 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Listening In Riddoch, L. August 2009 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs Ocean Studies Board January 1994 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Making Marine Renewable Energy Mainstream Murray, M. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations Southall, B., et al. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects National Research Council January 2005 Book N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Mammals and Noise: A Sound Approach to Research and Management Marine Mammal Commission March 2007 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Masking in Three Pinnipeds: Underwater, Low-Frequency Critical Ratios Southall, B., Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. June 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Mitigating, Monitoring and Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Barlow, J., Gisiner, R. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Overview Of The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Underwater Sound In The Marine Environment Götz, T., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Seismic Survey Mitigation Measures and Marine Mammal Observer Reports Barkaszi, M., et al. June 2012 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Collar, C., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Effect of Acoustic Harassment Devices on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Bay of Fundy, Canada Johnston, D. November 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
The Effects of Noise on the Aquatic Environment Walmsley, D. August 2007 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Ocean Noise On Cetaceans And Implications For Management Weilgart, L. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Vessel Noise Effects On Delphinid Communication Jensen, F., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Auditory Effects of Underwater Noise in Odontocetes Finneran, J. January 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Repeated Elicitation of the Acoustic Startle Reflex Leads to Sensitisation in Subsequent Avoidance Behaviour and Induces Fear Conditioning Janik, V., Götz, T. April 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Responsible Practices for Minimizing and Monitoring Environmental Impacts of Marine Seismic Surveys with an Emphasis on Marine Mammals Nowacek, D., et al. November 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals Deng, Z., et al. April 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network For Marine And Hydrokinetic Energy Projects Stein, P., Edson, P. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals: Acoustic Threshold Levels for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration December 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of Level, Duration, and Inter-Pulse Interval of 1-2 kHz Sonar Signal Exposures on Harbor Porpoise Hearing Kastelein, R., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
MERiFIC 3.3.1: Collaborative Field Study Programme Sotta, C., Witt, M., Le Niliot, P. February 2014 Report Marine Energy general Noise Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Detection of Tonal Signals Between 0.125 and 100 kHz by Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. November 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Influence of Underwater Data Transmission Sounds on the Displacement Behaviour of Captive Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. April 2005 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Influence of 70 and 120 kHz Tonal Signals on the Behavior of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a Floating Pen Kastelein, R., et al. May 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing Threshold Shifts and Recovery in Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) after Octave-Band Noise Exposure at 4 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. July 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effect of Signal Duration on the Underwater Hearing Thresholds of Two Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Single Tonal Signals Between 0.2 and 40 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Narrow Noise Bands Between 0.2 and 80 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. April 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Aversiveness of Sounds in Phocid Seals: Psycho-Physiological Factors, Learning Processes and Motivation Götz, T., Janik, V. January 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Long-range Effects of Airgun Noise on Marine Mammals: Responses as a Function of Received Sound Level and Distance Bain, D., Williams, R. May 2006 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals

Pages

Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.