Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Proceedings of the Effects of Oil on Wildlife: Research, Rehabilitation, and General Concerns Massey, J. January 2007 Conference Paper N/A Chemicals Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Ecology of Fishes in a High-Latitude, Turbid River with Implications for the Impacts of Hydrokinetic Devices Seitz, A., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal Fish
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) Lorraine, R., Tremlett, C. January 2009 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Navigation
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Partnership for Research In Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) Harper, P., et al. January 2013 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics
MegaRoller Apolonia, M., Simas, T. May 2018 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Potential OTEC Impacts in the Hawaiian Marine Environment Parke, M. January 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential Environmental Effects of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Sound and Sea Technologies April 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Review of Studies Related to the Effects of Propeller-Type Turbine Passage on Fish Early Life Stages Cada, G. January 1990 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
An Estimation Of Survival And Injury Of Fish Passed Through The Hydro Green Energy Hydrokinetic System, And A Characterization Of Fish Entrainment Potential At The Mississippi Lock And Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Projects Normandeau Associates December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Barging Effects On Sensory Systems Of Chinook Salmon Smolts Halvorsen, M., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Collision Risks Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds Wilson, B., et al. March 2007 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Efforts to Reduce Mortality to Hydroelectric Turbine-Passed Fish: Locating and Quantifying Damaging Shear Stresses Cada, G., et al. February 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Environmental Assessment for Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Project City of Hastings September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Environmental Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbines on Fish: Desktop and Laboratory Flume Studies Jacobson, P., et al. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines Schweizer, P., Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. May 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Large Kaplan Turbines Deng, Z., et al. November 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Fish-Injury Mechanisms During Exposure to a High-Velocity Jet Guensch, G., Mueller, R., Dauble, D. November 2002 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Fish Injury and Mortality Associated with Hydrokinetic Turbines Amaral, S., et al. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Fish Passage Through Turbines: Application of Conventional Hydropower Data to Hydrokinetic Technologies Electric Power Research Institute October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Shear on Fish Nietzel, D., et al. September 2000 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Stereo-Video Methodology for Quantitative Analysis of Fish-Turbine Interactions Hammar, L., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Survival Estimates for Juvenile Fish Subjected to a Laboratory-Generated Shear Environment Neitzel, D., et al. January 2004 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Fish
Use of Pressure-Sensitive Film to Quantify Sources of Injury to Fish Cada, G., Smith, J., Busey, J. January 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour Hammar, L., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Who Should be Afraid of a Tidal Turbine - The Good the Bad or the Ugly? Hammar, L., Ehnberg, J. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Simulating Collisions for Hydrokinetic Turbines Richmond, M., Romero-Gomez, P., Rakowski, C. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Quantifying Barotrauma Risk to Juvenile Fish during Hydro-Turbine Passage Richmond, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Discrete Element Modeling of Blade-Strike Frequency and Survival of Fish Passing Through Hydrokinetic Turbines Romero-Gomez, P., Richmond, M. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Power from the Brave New Ocean: Marine Renewable Energy and Ecological Risks Hammar, L. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Fish, Socio-economics
Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish Passing Through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines Romero-Gomez, P., Richmond, M. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Comparison of Blade-Strike Modeling Results with Empirical Data Ploskey, G., Carlson, T. March 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Survival and Behavior of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., Giza, D., McMahon, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Behavior and Survival of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
A Probabilistic Model for Hydrokinetic Turbine Collision Risks: Exploring Impacts on Fish Hammar, L., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Macrotidal Estuaries: A Region of Collision Between Migratory Marine Animals and Tidal Power Development Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling Deng, Z., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Fish Behavior in Relation to Passage through Hydropower Turbines: A Review Coutant, C., Whitney, R. January 2000 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam Deng, Z., et al. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Comparison of Simulation Models Used in Assessing the Effects of Power-Plant-Induced Mortality on Fish Populations Swartzman, G., Deriso, R., Cowan, C. May 1977 Conference Paper N/A Dynamic Device Fish
Downstream Migration of Fish Through Dams of Hydroelectric Power Plants Pavlov, D., Lupandin, A., Kostin, V. January 1999 Book Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Improvements to Probabilistic Tidal Turbine-Fish Interaction Model Parameters Tomichek, C., Colby, J., Adonizio, M. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Fish Behavioral Response during Hydrokinetic Turbine Encounters Based on Multi-Beam Hydroacoustics Results Bevelhimer, M., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes Schweizer, P., Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Kaplan Turbines Deng, Z., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Multi-beam Echosounder Data: SGDS Project

Atlantis Resources

February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform Multi-beam and Echosounder Data

Atlantis Resources

October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Video Camera Data

Atlantis Resources

November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Impact assessment of marine current turbines on fish behavior using an experimental approach based on the similarity law Zhang, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Video Monitoring Data of Wildlife Interactions

Aquatera Ltd

May 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data Informing Video Analysis

Aquatera Ltd

June 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data

University of Aberdeen

June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data

University of Aberdeen

July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York Bevelhimer, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Fish Navigation of Large Dams Emerges from their Modulation of Flow Field Experience Goodwin, R., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
OERA Webinar Series: Finite Element Analysis to Assess Fish Mortality from Interactions with Tidal Turbine Blades Fyffe, N. May 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Tidal Energy Fish Impact: Method Development to Determine the Impact of Open Water Tidal Energy Converters on Fish Smit, M., et al. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Long‐term effect of a tidal, hydroelectric propeller turbine on the populations of three anadromous fish species Dadswell, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
A fish-eye view of riverine hydropower systems: the current understanding of the biological response to turbine passage Pracheil, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Mortality and Injury Assessment for Three Species of Fish Exposed to Simulated Turbine Blade Strike Bevelhimer, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Downstream migration of Atlantic salmon smolts past a low head hydropower station equippped with Archimedes screw and Francis turbines Havn, T., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Winter and summer differences in probability of fish encounter (spatial overlap) with MHK devices Viehman, H., Boucher, T., Redden, A. August 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Agent-Based Modelling of fish collisions with tidal turbines Rossington, K., Benson, T. May 2019 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Bayesian Integration for Marine Spatial Planning and Renewable Energy Siting Halsey, K., Goldfinger, C. September 2010 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Will Ocean Energy Harm Marine Ecosystems? Hammar, L. January 2013 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
An International Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Copping, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment (MaREE) Adams, T., et al. January 2010 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Adaptable Monitoring Package (AMP) Polagye, B., et al. January 2015 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Large Scale Interactive Coupled 3D Modelled for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact (TeraWatt) Heath, M., et al. February 2012 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Quantifying Benefits and Impacts of Fishing Exclusion Zones on Bio-Resources around Marine Renewable Energy Installations (QBEX) Blondel, P., et al. January 2012 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour Hammar, L., et al. February 2012 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Hydroacoustic Remote Sensing for Artificial Habitats Thorne, R. September 1994 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Environmental Assessment Project Adonizio, M., Smith, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Open-Ocean Energy Production: The Environmental Context Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Sea Turtles

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