Avoidance

Animals may temporarily or permanently avoid an area where devices are present.

Avoidance

Animals may avoid wind and marine renewable energy devices, potentially resulting in loss of foraging, breeding, rearing, or resting habitats. Access roads and export cables may also cause habitats to be segmented if some animals will avoid these obstructions. Construction is the most likely to displace animals because of the heavy traffic and loud noises, but many animals return and are not disturbed by the operation of devices. Species that are displaced from essential unique habitats may be at higher risk by avoidance. Understanding how different habitats are used by organisms will assist in device placement.

Photo Credit: "Nacelle enroute to Scout Moor Wind Farm" by Paul Anderson

Total Results: 97
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article EMF, Static Device
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Predator attack rates and anti-predator behavior of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Southern California wind farms, USA Keehn, J., Feldman, C. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Nearfield Habitat
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Harbour Seals Avoid Tidal Turbine Noise: Implications for Collision Risk Hastie, G., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Indirect Impacts of Wind Farms on Terrestrial Mammals: Insights from the Disturbance and Exclusion Effects on Wolves (Canis lupus) da Costa, G., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Mammalian Mesocarnivore Visitation at Tortoise Burrows in a Wind Farm Agha, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Sea Turtles, Terrestrial Mammals
Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction Graham, I., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Analysis of the Possible Displacement of Bird and Marine Mammal Species Related to the Installation and Operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems Long, C. January 2017 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
A Coordinated Action Plan for Addressing Collision Risk for Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines Hutchison, I., Copping, A. August 2016 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds
A Methodology to Assess Displacement Effects on Key Wildlife Species Arising from Marine Energy Conversion Systems using Onshore Observation Data Long, C., Scott-Hayward, L., Norris, J. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Thomsen, F., et al. September 2015 Report Marine Energy general EMF
Changes in Vertical Fish Distributions Near a Hydrokinetic Device in Cobscook Bay, Maine, USA Staines, G., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
ORJIP Ocean Energy: The Forward Look; an Ocean Energy Environmental Research Strategy for the UK ORJIP July 2015 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Fisheries, Marine Conservation, Marine Renewable Energy and Displacement: A Fresh Approach Campbell, M. May 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Fishing
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Is a Wind-Power Plant Acting as a Barrier for Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Movements? Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Effects of Displacement from Marine Renewable Development on Seabirds Breeding at SPAs: A Proof of Concept Model of Common Guillemots Breeding on the Isle of May McDonald, C., et al. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Birds
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Attraction To and Avoidance of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines by Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. May 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Static Device Fish
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Detection of Marine Mammals and Effects Monitoring at the NSPI (OpenHydro) Turbine Site in the Minas Passage during 2010 Tollit, D., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general Static Device Bats, Birds
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Field Test Results of a Potential Acoustic Deterrent to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general Bats
Avian information systems: Developing web-based bird avoidance models Shamoun-Baranes, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
A Test for Bias Attributable to Seabird Avoidance of Ships during Surveys Conducted in the Tropical Pacific Borberg, J., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Reindeer and Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Response Towards Human Activities Reimers, E., Colman, J. January 2006 Journal Article Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessment of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Fluxes, Flight Paths and Altitudes of Flying Birds 2003-2004 Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Bird Abundance. Systematic Review No. 4 Stewart, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C., Holland, K., Papastamatiou, Y. December 2004 Journal Article EMF Fish
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Passerines
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Base-Line Investigations of Birds in Relation to an Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand: Results and Conclusions, 2002 Desholm, M., et al. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general Noise Birds
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
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