Fact Sheet: Upscaling Individual Effects of Wind Energy to Population Impacts on Wildlife

 

For wind energy projects, one of the greatest challenges is understanding population level impacts as it is important to distinguish between the effects wind energy developments have on individuals and how these ultimately impact populations. The Individuals to Population summary (fact sheet) was created to provide a summary of the WREN Individuals to Populations white paper and to highlight the need to upscale effects to the level of the broader populations that such individuals are part of. The table below contains the literature relevant to this topic for the wind energy industry and will continue to be updated as new literature is added to Tethys.

 

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Sources of Information on Individuals to Population:

Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Considerations for upscaling individual effects of wind energy development towards population-level impacts on wildlife May, R., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2018 Rodrigues, L. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
No Substitute for Survival: Perturbation Analyses Using a Golden Eagle Population Model Reveal Limits to Managing for Take Tack, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Fatalities at Wind Turbines may Threaten Population Viability of a Migratory Bat Frick, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2017 Rodrigues, L. March 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Geographic Origins and Population Genetics of Bats Killed at Wind-Energy Facilities Pylant, C., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2016 Rodrigues, L. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Effects of a Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection and Population Demographics in Southeastern Wyoming LeBeau, C., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
How Might We Assess and Manage the Effects of Underwater Noise on Populations of Marine Animals? Tasker, M. January 2016 Book Chapter N/A Noise Ecosystem
Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals Harwood, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
A Conceptual Model to Determine Vulnerability of Wildlife Populations to Offshore Wind Energy Development Goodale, M., Stenhouse, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
An Interim Framework for Assessing the Population Consequences of Disturbance King, S., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes Duerr, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Methodological challenges in monitoring bat population- and assemblage-level changes for anthropogenic impact assessment Meyer, C. May 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2015 Rodrigues, L. March 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Analysis of Wind Farm Effects on the Surrounding Environment: Assessing Population Trends of Breeding Passerines Garcia, D., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Ecosystem
Evaluation of Mobile Acoustic Techniques for Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2014 Rodrigues, L. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
The Sensitivity of UK Marine Mammal Populations to Marine Renewables Developments Harwood, J., King, S. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
MERiFIC 3.3.2: Grey Seal Population Surveys of the Isles of Scilly and Parc Naturel Marin d'Iroise Witt, M. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Genetic Approaches to Understanding the Population-Level Impact of Wind Energy Development on Migratory Bats Vonhof, M., Russell, A. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Modeling Habitat Use of a Fringe Greater Sage-Grouse Population at Multiple Spatial Scales Burnett, A. July 2013 Thesis N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States Ingersoll, T., Sewall, B., Amelon, S. June 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Sandercock, B. May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Research Brief: Effects of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Kansas National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Landscape Level Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M. December 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Population Dynamics and Movements of Translocated and Resident Greater Sage-Grouse on Anthro Mountain, Utah Gruber, N. December 2012 Thesis N/A N/A Birds
Representing the Acquisition and Use of Energy by Individuals in Agent-Based Models of Animal Populations Sibly, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Spatial Distribution of Wind Turbines is Crucial for the Survival of Red Kite Populations Schaub, M. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Nesting Ecology of a Population of Gopherus agassizii at a Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facility in Southern California Ennen, J., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming Johnson, G., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Scientific Advice on Matters Related to the Management of Seal Populations Special Committee on Seals January 2012 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations Lovich, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Linking Turbine Collision Risks with Population Models to Assess Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Wind Farms on Threatened Birds Smales, I., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Arguments for Using Population Models in Incidental Take Assessments for Endangered Species McGowan, C., Ryan, M. November 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics
Impacts of Offshore Renewable Energy Devices on Population Connectivity Adams, T., et al. October 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Distance Software: Design and Analysis of Distance Sampling Surveys for Estimating Population Size Thomas, L., et al. February 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Guidance note: Guidance on Methods for Monitoring Bird Populations at Onshore Wind Farms Scottish Natural Heritage January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis: Molossidae Chiroptera) at high altitude: links to migratory insect populations McCracken, G., et al. June 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Wind Turbines and Sensitive Bird Populations: A Spatial Planning Guide for On-Shore Wind Farm Developments in Cumbria Youngs, T., Shackleton, D. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Potential Use of Population Viability Analysis to Assess the Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Bird Populations Maclean, I., Frederiksen, M., Rehfisch, M. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
A Review of the Status of Atlantic Sturgeon in Canada, with Comparisons to Populations in the United States and Europe Dadswell, M. May 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Fish
Report of the Intersessional Working Group on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations Rodrigues, L., et al. April 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects National Research Council January 2005 Book N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Assessment Studies on wind turbines and bat populations - a step towards best practice guidelines N/A January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Volume 1: Natural History and Population Trends Manuwal, D., et al. January 2002 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Predatory Bird Research Group June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Comparison of Simulation Models Used in Assessing the Effects of Power-Plant-Induced Mortality on Fish Populations Swartzman, G., Deriso, R., Cowan, C. May 1977 Conference Paper N/A Dynamic Device Fish
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