United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1199
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Land-Based Wind Energy and the Environment: Potential Impacts for Wildlife and the West Michigan Landscape Gajewsk, B., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Landscape Classification System: Addressing Environmental Issues Associated with Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development in Virginia Boone, D., et al. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report Bats
Map-Based Repowering of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Based on Burrowing Owl Burrows, Raptor Flights, and Collisions with Wind Turbines Smallwood, K., Neher, L. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Monitoring the Potential Impact of A Wind Development Site on Bats in the Northeast Reynolds, D. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Natural Resources Impact Assessment Under 30 V.S.A 248(B)(5) Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Noise Impact Analysis of Wind Turbines, Searsburg, Vermont Resource Systems Group July 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Oregon's High Desert and Wind Energy: Opportunities and Strategies for Responsible Development Oregon Natural Desert Association May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Herkimer Wind Farm Herkimer County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Bat Risk Assessment: Mount Wachusett Community College Wind Energy Project Worcester County, Massachusetts Reynolds, D., Veilleux, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
A Preliminary Evaluation on the Use of Dogs to Recover Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Arnett, E. December 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Response to Wind Energy Development on Winter Range in South-Central, Wyoming Taylor, K. May 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, First Annual Report: January - December 2007 Erickson, W., Jeffrey, J., Poulton, V. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Radar and Visual Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Flat Rock Wind Power Project, New York, Fall 2004 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Hatchet Ridge Wind Project, California, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Sanzenbacher, P. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Range Management Practices to Reduce Wind Turbine Impacts on Burrowing Owls and Other Raptors in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Raptors and Wind Energy Development in the Central Appalachians: Where We Stand on the Issue Katzner, T., et al. August 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project April-November 2006 Wallin, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Terrestrial Mammals
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project During October 2005 Wallin, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
A Review of Goose Collisions at Operating Wind Farms and Estimation of the Goose Avoidance Rate Fernley, J., Lowther, S., Whitfield, P. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Energy Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement Bureau of Land Management January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Scientific Review of California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Hicks, W., Newman, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Searsburg Wind Tower Expansion Project Bat Habitat Assessment and Mapping Final Report Prepared Arrowwood Environmental May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Sociological Effects of Wind Farms in Maine Barthold, J. May 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Spring 2007 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Summary of Post-Construction Monitoring at Wind Projects Relevant to Minnesota, Identification of Data Gaps, and Recommendations for Further Research Regarding Wind-Energy Development in Minnesota Poulton, V. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Supplement to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment and Breeding Bird Study for the Deerfield Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA) Agha, M., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Studies for the Buffalo Ridge II Wind Resource Area Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Final Report March 2008 - November 2008 Derby, C., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Potential Impacts of Ocean Acidification on the Puget Sound Food Web Busch, D., Harvey, C., McElhany, P. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general Ecosystem
Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam Deng, Z., et al. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C., Holland, K., Papastamatiou, Y. December 2004 Journal Article EMF Fish
A New Tool to Forecast Fish Movement and Passage Goodwin, R., et al. August 2007 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Red and White Muscle Activity and Kinematics of the Escape Response of the Bluegill Sunfish during Swimming Jayne, B., Lauder, G. April 1993 Journal Article Fish
A Comparative Review of Entrainment Survival Studies at Power Plants in Estuarine Environments Mayhew, D., et al. September 2000 Journal Article Marine Energy general
Seal Predation on Salmon and Forage Fish Schools as a Function of Tidal Currents in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA Zamon, J. December 2001 Journal Article Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Sediment Transport Study Phase 1 Oregon State University December 2009 Report Dynamic Device
Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan 2013 Hawaii Office of Planning July 2013 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Responses of Male Greater Prairie-Chickens to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Characterizing Large River Sounds: Providing Context for Understanding the Environmental Effects of Noise Produced by Hydrokinetic Turbines Bevelhimer, M., Deng, D., Scherelis, C. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Noise Socio-economics, Navigation
Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes Peterson, T. January 2016 Report Bats
Salish Sea Model: Simulation of Tidal Circulation, Nutrients Loading, Transport and Biogeochemical Processes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory November 2012 Website Energy Removal
Seasonal Variation in Sea Turtle Density and Abundance in the Southeast Florida Current and Surrounding Waters Bovery, C., Wyneken, J. December 2015 Journal Article Reptiles
Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements Kavet, R., Wyman, M., Klimley, A. February 2016 Journal Article EMF
Wave Energy Level and Geographic Setting Correlate with Florida Beach Water Quality Feng, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Improvements to Probabilistic Tidal Turbine-Fish Interaction Model Parameters Tomichek, C., Colby, J., Adonizio, M. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device [Conference Paper] Shen, H., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Fish
Human Dimensions Research on Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Development in Maine Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Fish Interactions with Marine Renewable Devices: Lessons Learned, from Ecological Design to Improving Cost-Effectiveness Zydlewski, G., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Fish
Quantification of Massive Seasonal Aggregations of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in Southeast Florida Kajiura, S., Tellman, S. March 2016 Journal Article Fish
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
OCGen Module Mooring Design Marnagh, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Hydrodynamic Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbine Deployment in an Irrigation Canal Gunawan, B., Roberts, J., Neary, V. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Riverine Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Estimating Distribution of Sedimentary Benthic Habitats and Species on the Eastern Pacific Shelf and Detecting Effects of Device Deployment Henkel, S., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters Gedamke, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Noise
Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals Harwood, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Studying wind energy/bird interactions: A guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites Anderson, R., et al. January 1999 Book Wind Energy general Birds
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Repowing Draft Program Environmental Impact Report Alameda County Community Development Agency June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics

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