United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1143
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Environmental Studies Related to the Operation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Rogers, S., et al. December 1977 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Phase 1 Post Construction Wildlife Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. February 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Evaluating Pre-Construction Sampling Regimes for Assessing Patterns of Bat Activity at a Wind Energy Development in Southern California Weller, T. July 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Existing Natural Resource Conditions at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Fall 2005 Radar and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Fall 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project: Draft Report Woodlot Alternatives November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Fall 2006 Radar Surveys of Nighttime Migration Activity at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Final Environmental Assessment, Burleigh County Wind Energy Center, Burleigh County, North Dakota FPL Energy Burleigh County Wind August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Bonneville Power Administration September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project Draft EIS - Appendix F: Bat Acoustical Studies Taylor, K., Solick, D., Bay, K. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Kaheawa Pastures Wind Energy Generation Facility: Habitat Conservation Plan Kaheawa Wind Power January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Klondike III Wind Project: Habitat Mitigation Plan Oregon Department of Energy November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Land-Based Wind Energy and the Environment: Potential Impacts for Wildlife and the West Michigan Landscape Gajewsk, B., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Landscape Classification System: Addressing Environmental Issues Associated with Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development in Virginia Boone, D., et al. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report Bats
Map-Based Repowering of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Based on Burrowing Owl Burrows, Raptor Flights, and Collisions with Wind Turbines Smallwood, K., Neher, L. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Natural Resources Impact Assessment Under 30 V.S.A 248(B)(5) Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Noise Impact Analysis of Wind Turbines, Searsburg, Vermont Resource Systems Group July 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Oregon's High Desert and Wind Energy: Opportunities and Strategies for Responsible Development Oregon Natural Desert Association May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Herkimer Wind Farm Herkimer County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Bat Risk Assessment: Mount Wachusett Community College Wind Energy Project Worcester County, Massachusetts Reynolds, D., Veilleux, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, First Annual Report: January - December 2007 Erickson, W., Jeffrey, J., Poulton, V. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Radar and Visual Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Flat Rock Wind Power Project, New York, Fall 2004 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Hatchet Ridge Wind Project, California, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Sanzenbacher, P. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Range Management Practices to Reduce Wind Turbine Impacts on Burrowing Owls and Other Raptors in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Raptors and Wind Energy Development in the Central Appalachians: Where We Stand on the Issue Katzner, T., et al. August 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project April-November 2006 Wallin, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Terrestrial Mammals
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project During October 2005 Wallin, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
A Review of Goose Collisions at Operating Wind Farms and Estimation of the Goose Avoidance Rate Fernley, J., Lowther, S., Whitfield, P. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Energy Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement Bureau of Land Management January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Scientific Review of California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Hicks, W., Newman, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Searsburg Wind Tower Expansion Project Bat Habitat Assessment and Mapping Final Report Prepared Arrowwood Environmental May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Spring 2007 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Summary of Post-Construction Monitoring at Wind Projects Relevant to Minnesota, Identification of Data Gaps, and Recommendations for Further Research Regarding Wind-Energy Development in Minnesota Poulton, V. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Supplement to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment and Breeding Bird Study for the Deerfield Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Studies for the Buffalo Ridge II Wind Resource Area Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Final Report March 2008 - November 2008 Derby, C., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Sediment Transport Study Phase 1 Oregon State University December 2009 Report Dynamic Device
Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan 2013 Hawaii Office of Planning July 2013 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes Peterson, T. January 2016 Report Bats
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Repowing Draft Program Environmental Impact Report Alameda County Community Development Agency June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
An Assessment of Potential Collision Mortality of Migrating Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) Traversing Between Caves Johnson, G., Strickland, M. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Bird Fatality Study at Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: October 2005 to September 2007 Altamont Pass Avian Monitoring Team January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area 48-Hour Search Interval Bird Fatality Study Jones & Stokes Associates June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of a Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection and Population Demographics in Southeastern Wyoming LeBeau, C., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Comprehensive Guide to Studying Wind Energy Wildlife Interactions Strickland, D., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes Schweizer, P., Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Evaluation of a Passive Acoustic Monitoring Network for Harbor Porpoise in California Jacobson, E., Forney, K., Harvey, J. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Marine Mammals
Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands Costa, B., Kendall, M. July 2016 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Magalen, J., Roberts, J. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation
A Review of Regulatory and Policy Requirements for Hydrokinetic Power Projects in New York State Linz, F., Hirschberger, A., Casadonte, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general
Potential Impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages Kuhnz, L., et al. December 2015 Report Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Massachusetts Study on Wind Turbine Acoustics Resource Systems Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Issuance of Incidental Harassment Authorizations to Deepwater Wind for the Take of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System National Marine Fisheries Service August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish

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