United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1174
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Birds and Bats: Potential Impacts and Survey Techniques Global Energy Concepts October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Black Bear Corridor Crossings in the Vicinity of the Searsburg Wind Turbines as Investigated in 1995 Wallin, J. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Breeding Bird Survey for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York, Fall 2004 Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Breeding Bird Survey for the Searsburg/Readsboro Expansion Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Anderson, R., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Cimarron Wind Energy Project - Phase 1: Final Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Collision Avoidance of Golden Eagles at Wind Farms Under the 'Band' Collision Risk Model Whitfield, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Sealaska Corporation: Report September 2002 through December 2005 Lynette, R. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Eastern Pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report Bats
Ecological Baseline Studies Report Proposed Dry Lake Wind Project, Navajo County, Arizona Young, D. Jr., Poulton, V., Bay, K. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Ecosystem
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
An Ecological Risk Assessment of Wind Energy Development in Montana Martin, B., Pearson, A., Bauer, B. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Ecology and Demography of Bicknell's Thrush on East Mountain, East Haven, Vermont: Evaluating Potential Impacts of Wind Turbine Construction Rimmer, C., Faccio, S. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Effects of Acoustic Deterrents on Foraging Bats Johnson, J., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Studies Related to the Operation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Rogers, S., et al. December 1977 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Phase 1 Post Construction Wildlife Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. February 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Evaluating Pre-Construction Sampling Regimes for Assessing Patterns of Bat Activity at a Wind Energy Development in Southern California Weller, T. July 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Existing Natural Resource Conditions at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Fall 2005 Radar and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Fall 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project: Draft Report Woodlot Alternatives November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Fall 2006 Radar Surveys of Nighttime Migration Activity at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Final Environmental Assessment, Burleigh County Wind Energy Center, Burleigh County, North Dakota FPL Energy Burleigh County Wind August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Bonneville Power Administration September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project Draft EIS - Appendix F: Bat Acoustical Studies Taylor, K., Solick, D., Bay, K. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Kaheawa Pastures Wind Energy Generation Facility: Habitat Conservation Plan Kaheawa Wind Power January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Klondike III Wind Project: Habitat Mitigation Plan Oregon Department of Energy November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Land-Based Wind Energy and the Environment: Potential Impacts for Wildlife and the West Michigan Landscape Gajewsk, B., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Landscape Classification System: Addressing Environmental Issues Associated with Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development in Virginia Boone, D., et al. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report Bats
Map-Based Repowering of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Based on Burrowing Owl Burrows, Raptor Flights, and Collisions with Wind Turbines Smallwood, K., Neher, L. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Natural Resources Impact Assessment Under 30 V.S.A 248(B)(5) Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Noise Impact Analysis of Wind Turbines, Searsburg, Vermont Resource Systems Group July 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Oregon's High Desert and Wind Energy: Opportunities and Strategies for Responsible Development Oregon Natural Desert Association May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Herkimer Wind Farm Herkimer County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Bat Risk Assessment: Mount Wachusett Community College Wind Energy Project Worcester County, Massachusetts Reynolds, D., Veilleux, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, First Annual Report: January - December 2007 Erickson, W., Jeffrey, J., Poulton, V. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Radar and Visual Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Flat Rock Wind Power Project, New York, Fall 2004 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Hatchet Ridge Wind Project, California, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Sanzenbacher, P. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Range Management Practices to Reduce Wind Turbine Impacts on Burrowing Owls and Other Raptors in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Raptors and Wind Energy Development in the Central Appalachians: Where We Stand on the Issue Katzner, T., et al. August 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project April-November 2006 Wallin, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Terrestrial Mammals
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project During October 2005 Wallin, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
A Review of Goose Collisions at Operating Wind Farms and Estimation of the Goose Avoidance Rate Fernley, J., Lowther, S., Whitfield, P. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Energy Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement Bureau of Land Management January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Scientific Review of California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Hicks, W., Newman, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Searsburg Wind Tower Expansion Project Bat Habitat Assessment and Mapping Final Report Prepared Arrowwood Environmental May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Spring 2007 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Summary of Post-Construction Monitoring at Wind Projects Relevant to Minnesota, Identification of Data Gaps, and Recommendations for Further Research Regarding Wind-Energy Development in Minnesota Poulton, V. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Supplement to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment and Breeding Bird Study for the Deerfield Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Studies for the Buffalo Ridge II Wind Resource Area Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Final Report March 2008 - November 2008 Derby, C., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Sediment Transport Study Phase 1 Oregon State University December 2009 Report Dynamic Device
Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan 2013 Hawaii Office of Planning July 2013 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes Peterson, T. January 2016 Report Bats
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Repowing Draft Program Environmental Impact Report Alameda County Community Development Agency June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics

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