United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1162
Titlesort ascending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Yaquina Bay, Oregon Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Evaluations Study and Environmental Assessment US Army Corps of Engineers, US Environmental Protection Agency February 2012 Report Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates
Winter Resource Selection by Mule Deer on the Wyoming-Colorado Border Prior to Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Winter Marine Bird Surveys Mills, G. March 2012 Report Birds
Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries Karimpour, A., Chen, Q., Twilley, R. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development Specialist Report: Kiowa, Rita Blanca, Black Kettle and McClellan Creek National Grasslands Plan Revision Environmental Impact Statement Hall, D. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Wind Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities Kuvlesky, W. Jr., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Farfield Environment
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development Fargione, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Will Offshore Energy Face "Fair Winds and Following Seas"?: Understanding the Factors Influencing Offshore Wind Acceptance Teisl, M., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Will Communities "Open-Up" to Offshore Wind? Lessons Learned from New England Islands in the United States Klain, S., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Wildlife Mortality at Wind Facilities: How We Know What We Know How We Might Mislead Ourselves, and How We Set Our Future Course Huso, M. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Wild Horse Wind Project- Summary of Results from 2002-2003 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Studies for the Buffalo Ridge II Wind Resource Area Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Final Report March 2008 - November 2008 Derby, C., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane Monitoring at Five Wind Energy Facilities Derby, C., Welsch, M., Thorn, T. January 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Whale Entanglements Off California Fact Sheet National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2014 Report Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Fishing
Western Passage Tidal Energy Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
West Coast Marine Bird Surveys - Quantitative shipboard surveys of species distribution and abundance on the continental shelf during April 2008 and July-August 2008 Zamon, J. August 2008 Report Birds
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Welcoming the Wind? Determinants of Wind Power Development Among U.S. States Bohn, C., Lant, C. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy: A Pacific Perspective Paasch, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project (Oregon) September 2010 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Level and Geographic Setting Correlate with Florida Beach Water Quality Feng, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Magalen, J., Roberts, J. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Wave energy and flow reduce the abundance and size of benthic species on oyster reefs Lunt, J., Reustle, J., Smee, D. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Washington's Coastal Zone Management Program Washington State Department of Ecology February 2001 Report Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Environmental Assessment Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Office of Renewable Energy Programs December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Variability in Reactions of Pacific Harbor Seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, to Disturbance Suryan, R., Harvey, J. May 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Valuing Public Preferences for Offshore Wind Power: A Choice Experimental Approach Krueger, A. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Using Temporal Analysis Techniques to Optimize Hydroacoustic Surveys of Fish at MHK Devices Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Using Hydroacoustics to Understand Fish Presence and Vertical Distribution in a Tidally Dynamic Region Targeted for Energy Extraction Viehman, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities Weller, T., Baldwin, J. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Using Deuterium and GARP To Estimate Geographic Extents of Source Populations of Hoary (Lasiurus cinereus) and Eastern Red (Lasiurus borealis) Bats Killed at a Central Illinois Wind Facility Van Essen, R. April 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Use of Multiple Orientation Cues by Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta Avens, L., Lohmann, K. August 2003 Journal Article EMF Sea Turtles
Use of forest edges by bats in a managed pine forest landscape Morris, A., Miller, D., Kalcounis-Rueppell, M. January 2010 Journal Article Bats
Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam Deng, Z., et al. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
US National Ocean Service's Estuarine Bathymetry NOAA’s National Ocean Service Special Projects January 1998 Website Benthic Invertebrates
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 2 US Department of Energy, et al. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 1 US Department of Energy, et al. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Underwater Sound Levels Associated with Pile Driving at the Cape Disappointment Boat Launch Facility, Wave Barrier Project Laughlin, J. March 2006 Report Noise
Underwater Radiated Noise from Modern Commercial Ships Mckenna, M., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Noise
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Measurements of a 1 to 7 Scale Wave Energy Converter Bassett, C., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Underwater Mach Wave Radiation from Impact Pile Driving: Theory and Observation Reinhall, P., Dahl, P. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Nearfield Habitat
Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network For Marine And Hydrokinetic Energy Projects Stein, P., Edson, P. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Acoustic Modeling Report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals Harwood, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Understanding and Informing Permitting Decisions for Tidal Energy Development Using an Adaptive Management Framework Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2016 Khalil, M. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey energy and wildlife research annual report for 2018 Khalil, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Turtles and Culverts, and Alternative Energy Development: An Unreported but Potentially Significant Mortality Threat to the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Lovich, J., et al. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA) Agha, M., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
True Navigation and Magnetic Maps in Spiny Lobsters Boles, L., Lohmann, K. January 2003 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Triton: Igiugig Fish Video Analysis Matzner, S., et al. August 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Triton: Environmental Technologies for Marine Energy Harker-Klimes, G. December 2016 Website Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Tidal Power Development in Maine: Stakeholder Identification and Perceptions of Engagement Johnson, T., Jansujwicz, J., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Tidal Energy Scenario Analysis: Holistic Stakeholder Considerations for Sustainable Development McTiernan, K. January 2017 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Value of a Net-Cage as a Fish Aggregating Device in Southern California Oakes, C., Pondella, D. January 2009 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The State of Rhode Island's Pioneering Marine Spatial Plan Olsen, S., McCann, J., Fugate, G. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
The State of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Program Goldman Law Offices December 2010 Report Socio-economics
The social dynamics of turbine tourism and recreation: Introducing a mixed-method approach to the study of the first U.S. offshore wind farm Smith, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Recreation
The Role Of The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission In Authorizing Hydrokinetic Technology Projects Konnert, T. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general
The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review Saleh, F., Weinstein, M. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
The Remote Environmental Assessment Laboratory's Acoustic Library: An Archive for Studying Soundscape Ecology Kasten, E., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
The PRAWLER, a Vertical Profiler Powered by Wave Energy Osse, T., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The Potential Impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on Fisheries Myers, E., et al. June 1986 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal Fish
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics

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