United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1162
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Oil Platforms off California are Among the Most Productive Marine Fish Habitats Globally Claisse, J., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Fish National Marine Sanctuaries August 2010 Website Fish
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Invertebrates List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Benthic Invertebrates
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Marine Mammals
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Open-Ocean Energy Production: The Environmental Context Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Sea Turtles
Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the US Northern Plains Niemuth, N., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Opposition "overblown"? Community response to wind energy siting in the Western United States Giordono, L., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics
Optimal Avoidance and Evasion Tactics in Predator-Prey Interactions Weihs, D., Webb, P. January 1984 Journal Article Ecosystem
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Ecosystem
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Oregon Dungeness Crab Tagging Study Hildenbrand, K., Gladics, A., Eder, B. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Oregon Historic Sites Database Oregon State Parks January 2012 Website Socio-economics
Oregon Marine Map MarineMap Consortium January 2012 Website Marine Energy general Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Oregon's High Desert and Wind Energy: Opportunities and Strategies for Responsible Development Oregon Natural Desert Association May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Orientation Behaviour of Leatherback Sea Turtles within the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre Dodge, K., Galuardi, B., Lutcavage, M. April 2015 Journal Article Sea Turtles
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Overview of Environmental Effects: OTEC vs Other Power Generation Methods Martí, J. May 2007 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Static Device
Pacific Coast Fisheries GIS Resource Database US Geological Survey January 2015 Website Socio-economics
Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 Adams, J., et al. March 2014 Report Birds, Marine Mammals
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Patterns of Acoustical Activity of Bats Prior to and Following White-Nose Syndrome Occurrence Ford, W., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatality at the Casselman Wind Project in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2008 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Benthic Mega-Invertebrate Habitat Associations in the Pacific Northwest Continental Shelf Waters Hemery, L., Henkel, S. July 2015 Journal Article Benthic Invertebrates
Patterns of Benthic Mega-Invertebrate Habitat Associations in the Pacific Northwest Continental Shelf Waters: A Reassessment Hemery, L., Henkel, S. August 2016 Journal Article Benthic Invertebrates
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Acoustic Activity at the Proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, 2009-2010 Hein, C., et al. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in Northwest Massachusetts: 2006 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at the Proposed Hoosac Wind Energy Project, Massachusetts, 2006-2007 Hein, C., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Pelagic Seabirds off the East Coast of the United States 2008-2013 Veit, R., et al. January 2015 Report Birds
Pennsylvania Game Commission Wind Energy Voluntary Cooperation Agreement: Amendment I Pennsylvania Game Commission July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
Performance and Near-Wake Measurements for a Vertical Axis Turbine at Moderate Reynolds Number Bachant, P., Wosnik, M. July 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat
Performance and resilience of hydrokinetic turbine arrays under large migrating fluvial bedforms Musa, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Petroleum Production Platforms as Sites for the Expansion of Ciguatera in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Villareal, T., et al. February 2007 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
PG&E WaveConnect Program Final Report Dooher, B., et al. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Herkimer Wind Farm Herkimer County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Bat Risk Assessment: Mount Wachusett Community College Wind Energy Project Worcester County, Massachusetts Reynolds, D., Veilleux, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Physical and Biological Modeling of a 100 Megawatt Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Discharge Plume Rocheleau, G., Grandelli, P. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Static Device
PMEC: Tanana River Test Site Kasper, J., et al. October 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Population Dynamics and Movements of Translocated and Resident Greater Sage-Grouse on Anthro Mountain, Utah Gruber, N. December 2012 Thesis Birds
Population-Level Effects of Wind Farms on a Desert Lizard Keehn, J., Shoemaker, K., Feldman, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Nearfield Habitat
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Year One Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California, Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Bird and Bat Mortality Study Cedar Ridge Wind Farm Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin BHE Environmental, Inc. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Post-Construction Meteorological Tower Fatality Study at the Shiloh I Wind Project Site Solano County, California Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Potential Effects of the Interaction Between Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines - An Engineering and Biomechanical Analysis Carlson, T., Jepsen, R., Copping, A. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Potential Environmental Consequences of Enhanced Ocean Upwelling Karl, D., et al. September 2013 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Environmental Effects of Leading Edge Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Sudderth, E., et al. May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Potential Environmental Impacts of Open-Cycle Thermal Energy Conversion Quinby-Hunt, M., Wilde, P., Dengler, A. January 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impacts from a Worst Case Discharge from an United States Offshore Wind Farm Gunter, T. January 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Potential Impacts from OTEC-Generated Underwater Sounds Rucker, J., Friedl, W. November 1985 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise
Potential impacts of artificial reef development on sea turtle conservation in Florida Barnette, M. January 2017 Report Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Potential Impacts of Ocean Acidification on the Puget Sound Food Web Busch, D., Harvey, C., McElhany, P. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general Ecosystem
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Potential Impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages Kuhnz, L., et al. December 2015 Report Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential OTEC Impacts in the Hawaiian Marine Environment Parke, M. January 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Power Availability in the Florida Current and Impact of its Extraction on the Gulf Stream Bozec, A., Hanson, H., Duerr, A. December 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Pre-Construction Breeding Bird Surveys Number Three Wind Energy Project Lewis County, New York Bay, K., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Pre-Construction Impact Assessment of Wind Development on Bats: Grande Prairie Wind Project, Holt County, Nebraska Midwest Wind Energy, LLC. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Predation risk: a potential mechanism for effects of a wind energy facility on Greater Prairie-Chicken survival Smith, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Predator attack rates and anti-predator behavior of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Southern California wind farms, USA Keehn, J., Feldman, C. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects Belaire, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters Gedamke, J., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Noise
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model Goyert, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Predicting Underwater Radiated Noise Levels due to the First Offshore Wind Turbine Installation in the U.S. Kim, H., Miller, J., Potty, G. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels Musa, M., Heisel, M., Guala, M. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
Preliminary Study of the Feeding Habits of Pelagic Fish around Hawaiian Fish Aggregation Devices or can Fish Aggregation Devices Enhance Local Fisheries Productivity? Brock, R. July 1985 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development Beston, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings AWEA / Audubon Workshop on Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts American Wind Energy Association January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Proceedings of Ocean Waves Workshop (2013) Nichols, C., Williams, R. February 2013 Workshop Article Farfield Environment
Proceedings of Ocean Waves Workshop (2015) Nichols, C. January 2015 Workshop Article Farfield Environment
Proceedings: Bats and Wind Power Generation Technical Workshop Energetics April 2004 Workshop Article Wind Energy general Bats

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