United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1127
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Migratory Routes of Short-Tailed Albatrosses: Use of Exclusive Economic Zones of North Pacific Rim Countries and Spatial Overlap with Commercial Fisheries in Alaska Suryan, R., et al. May 2007 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Migratory Stopover of Songbirds in the Western Lake Erie Basin Johnson, P. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Guidance for Commercial Wind Energy Projects Minnesota Department of Natural Resources July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Mississippi River Projects June 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Riverine
Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning: Phase 1 Report Kinlan, B., et al. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Modeling autumn migration of a rare soaring raptor identifies new movement corridors in central Appalachia Dennhardt, A., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Modeling Habitat Use of a Fringe Greater Sage-Grouse Population at Multiple Spatial Scales Burnett, A. July 2013 Thesis Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Modeling Impacts of Energy Extraction from the Gulf Stream System Haas, K., Yang, X., Fritz, H. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Energy Removal
Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements Kavet, R., Wyman, M., Klimley, A. February 2016 Journal Article EMF
Modeling of In-Stream Tidal Energy Development and its Potential Effects in Tacoma Narrows Washington USA Yang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind Development Pocewicz, A., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Grandelli, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Modeling Tidal Circulation and Stratification in Skagit River Estuary Using an Unstructured Grid Ocean Model Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report Static Device Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Installations on Tidal Stream Generation in Cobscook Bay O'Donncha, F., James, S., Ragnoli, E. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Fishing
Modified Cave Entrances: Thermal Effect on Body Mass and Resulting Decline of Endangered Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Richter, A., et al. June 1993 Journal Article Bats
Monitoring Bird Migration with a Fixed-Beam Radar and a Thermal-Imaging Camera Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Livingston, J. May 2006 Journal Article Birds
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Monitoring the Potential Impact of A Wind Development Site on Bats in the Northeast Reynolds, D. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Mortality and Serious Injury of Northern Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean Knowlton, A., Kraus, S. January 2001 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
MRE Extraction and Gulf Stream Dynamics July 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Energy Removal, Static Device
Multi-Scale Modeling of Puget Sound Using an Unstructured-Grid Coastal Ocean Model: From Tide Flats to Estuaries and Coastal Waters Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. December 2010 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Fish Presence in a High-Velocity Tidal Channel Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Multi-Year Acoustic Monitoring of Bats at the Maple Ridge Wind Project New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-Field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Carton, G., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States Gilman, P., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Natural and Human Impacts on Centennial Sediment Accumulation Patterns on the Umpqua River Margin, Oregon Wheatcroft, R., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
Natural Resources Impact Assessment Under 30 V.S.A 248(B)(5) Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Naval Base Kitsap at Bangor Trident Support Facilities Explosive Handling Wharf (EHW-2) Project: Acoustic Monitoring Report Navy Strategic Systems Programs May 2013 Report Noise
NedPower Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring Young, D. Jr., et al. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
NEPA Review of Offshore Wind Farms: Ensuring Emission Reduction Benefits Outweigh Visual Impacts Bisbee, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Nest site selection and nest survival of Greater Prairie-Chickens near a wind energy facility Harrison, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Nest Survival of Red-Winged Blackbirds in Agricultural Areas Developed for Wind Energy Gillespie, M., Dinsmore, S. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Nest-Guarding by Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind-Energy Facility Near Palm Springs, California Agha, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Nesting Burrowing Owl Density and Abundance in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Nesting Ecology of a Population of Gopherus agassizii at a Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facility in Southern California Ennen, J., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Nesting Success of Scissor-Tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus forficatus) at a Wind Farm in Northern Texas Rubenstahl, T., Hale, A., Karsten, K. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
New York Department of State Offshore Atlantic Ocean Study New York Department of State July 2013 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Night Migrant Fatalities And Obstruction Lighting At Wind Turbines In North America Kerlinger, P., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
No Evidence of Displacement due to Wind Turbines in Breeding Grassland Songbirds Hale, A., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Nocturnal Bird Migration in Northeastern Oregon and Southeastern Washington Mabee, T., Cooper, B. October 2004 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Nocturnal Bird Migration Over an Appalachian Ridge at a Proposed Wind Power Project Mabee, T., et al. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Noise Correction of Turbulent Spectra Obtained from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters Durgesh, V., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Noise
Noise Impact Analysis of Wind Turbines, Searsburg, Vermont Resource Systems Group July 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Noise Measurements Of A Prototype Tidal Energy Turbine Deveau, D., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
North Atlantic Right Whale Distribution and Seasonal Occurrence in Nearshore Waters off New Jersey, USA, and Implications for Management Whitt, A., Dudzinski, K., Laliberté, J. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Numerical Modeling of the Impact Response of Tidal Devices and Marine Mammals Grear, M., Motley, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Numerical Modeling of Tidal Currents and the Effects of Power Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Along the Georgia Coast, USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. December 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Simulation of 3D Flow Past a Real-Life Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Kang, S., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Observation of Sandhill Cranes' (Grus canadensis) Flight Behavior in Heavy Fog Kirsch, E., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Observing Ocean Changes at the Nation's First SWAC System Comfort, C., et al. September 2013 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Ecosystem
Obtaining Baseline Measurements of Ocean Ambient Sound at a Mobile Test Berth Site for Wave Energy Conversion Off the Central Oregon Coast Haxel, J., Dziak, R., Matsumoto, H. December 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise
Ocean Current Turbine Rotor Noise August 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Ocean Energy: Governance Challenges for Wave and Tidal Stream Technologies Wright, G., Kerr, S., Johnson, K. January 2018 Book Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Environmental Impacts NOAA Office of Ocean & Coastal Resource Management January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Environmental Effects Assessment Program Plan, 1981-85 NOAA Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy June 1982 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device
Ocean Wave Energy in the United States: Current Status and Future Perspectives Lehmann, M., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
OCGen Module Mooring Design Marnagh, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
OES Annual Report 2011 Ocean Energy Systems (OES) January 2012 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Offshore Observations of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey Methods Hatch, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Bats
Offshore Renewable Energy Regulatory Primer Showalter, S., Bowling, T. October 2011 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience Rein, C., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Oil Platforms off California are Among the Most Productive Marine Fish Habitats Globally Claisse, J., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Fish National Marine Sanctuaries August 2010 Website Fish
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Invertebrates List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Benthic Invertebrates
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Marine Mammals
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Open-Ocean Energy Production: The Environmental Context Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Sea Turtles
Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the US Northern Plains Niemuth, N., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Opposition "overblown"? Community response to wind energy siting in the Western United States Giordono, L., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics
Optimal Avoidance and Evasion Tactics in Predator-Prey Interactions Weihs, D., Webb, P. January 1984 Journal Article Ecosystem
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Ecosystem
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Oregon Dungeness Crab Tagging Study Hildenbrand, K., Gladics, A., Eder, B. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Oregon Historic Sites Database Oregon State Parks January 2012 Website Socio-economics
Oregon Marine Map MarineMap Consortium January 2012 Website Marine Energy general Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics

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