United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1162
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Hydrodynamics of a Ship/Whale Collision Silber, G., Slutsky, J., Bettridge, S. May 2010 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Navigation
Hydrographic and Sediment Field Surveys January 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation
Identical Response of Caged Rock Crabs (Genera Metacarcinus and Cancer) to Energized and Unenergized Undersea Power Cables in Southern California, USA Love, M., et al. April 2015 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Impact of Power Extraction on the Florida Current/Gulf Stream System Bozec, A., Chassignet, E., Hanson, H. February 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general Energy Removal
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Arrays on the Dynamics of Headland Sand Banks Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Sand Bank Dynamics Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. May 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Impacts of climate change and renewable energy development on habitat of an endemic squirrel, Xerospermophilus mohavensis, in the Mojave Desert, USA Inman, R., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Terrestrial Mammals
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Impacts of wind farms on land surface temperature Zhou, L., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Impacts Of Wind Farms On Surface Air Temperatures Traiteur, J., Roy, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Humans National Research Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing
Importance Of The Artificial Light Field Around Offshore Petroleum Platforms For The Associated Fish Community Keenan, S., Benfield, M., Blackburn, J. February 2007 Journal Article Lighting Fish
Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States Ingersoll, T., Sewall, B., Amelon, S. June 2013 Journal Article Bats
Improvements to Probabilistic Tidal Turbine-Fish Interaction Model Parameters Tomichek, C., Colby, J., Adonizio, M. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Improving Assessments of Tidal Power Potential using Grid Refinement in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Model Yang, X., Haas, K. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
In-Stream Tidal Energy Potential of Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Kawase, M., Malte, P. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Farfield Environment
Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Corcoran, A., Weller, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Indirect Effects of an Existing Wind Energy Facility on Lekking Behavior of Greater Prairie-Chickens Smith, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Initial Consultation Document for the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power October 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Input-Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States Kumar, I., Tyner, W., Sinha, K. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Integrated Modeling of Flood Flows and Tidal Hydrodynamics over a Coastal Floodplain Yang, Z., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Integrating Aerial and Ship Surveys of Marine Birds into a Combined Density Surface Model: A Case Study of Wintering Common Loons Winiarski, K., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Birds
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
Intense short-wavelength light triggers avoidance response by Red-tailed Hawks: A new tool for raptor diversion? Foss, C., Ronning, D., Merker, D. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Interaction between hydrokinetic turbine wakes and sediment dynamics: array performance and geomorphic effects under different siting strategies and sediment transport conditions Musa, M., Hill, C., Guala, M. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Interim Sound Threshold Guidance National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2016 Website Noise Marine Mammals
Interpreting failure to reject the null hypothesis of displacement from wind turbines in three species of grassland birds: Response to Johnson (2016) Hale, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
Inventory and Analysis of Coastal and Submerged Archaeological Site Occurrence on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf ICF International, Southeastern Archaeological Research, Davis Geoarchaeological Research November 2013 Report Socio-economics
Investigating the Causes of Death for Wind Turbine-Associated Bat Fatalities Grodsky, S., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near‐Shore Wave Fields: Model Generation, Validation and Evaluation ‐ Kaneohe Bay, HI Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Is Male-Biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior Folk, M., Dellinger, T., Leone, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Is Marine Spatial Planning Enough to Overcome Biological Data Deficiencies? Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Is there Room for All of Us? Renewable Energy and Xerospermophilus mohavensis Inman, R., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Issuance of Incidental Harassment Authorizations to Deepwater Wind for the Take of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System National Marine Fisheries Service August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Kaheawa Pastures Wind Energy Generation Facility: Habitat Conservation Plan Kaheawa Wind Power January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Kaneohe Bay OPT Wave Project January 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Key Seabird Areas in Southern New England Identified Using a Community Occupancy Model Flanders, N., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Klondike III Wind Project: Habitat Mitigation Plan Oregon Department of Energy November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes Schweizer, P., Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Laboratory study on the effects of hydro kinetic turbines on hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment Boezaart, A., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
Lalamilo Wind Farm Repowering Project: Draft Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities Diffendorfer, J., Compton, R. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Land-Based Infrared Imagery for Marine Mammal Detection Graber, J. April 2011 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Land-Based Wind Energy and the Environment: Potential Impacts for Wildlife and the West Michigan Landscape Gajewsk, B., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Landscape Classification System: Addressing Environmental Issues Associated with Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development in Virginia Boone, D., et al. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Landscape design: Integrating ecological, social, and economic considerations into conservation planning Bartuszevige, A., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes Duerr, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Landscape-Scale Wildlife Species Richness Metrics to Inform Wind and Solar Energy Facility Siting: An Arizona Case Study Thomas, K., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Less for More: The Rube Goldberg Nature of Industrial Wind Development Boone, J. December 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general
Lethal entanglement in baleen whales Cassoff, R., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Levelized Cost of Energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy Bull, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Life Cycle Environmental Impact of Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms in Texas Chipindula, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Life Cycle Assessment
Limits to the Predictability of Tidal Current Energy Polagye, B., Epler, J., Thomson, J. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report Bats
Local scour around a model hydrokinetic turbine in an erodible channel Hill, C., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Lock and Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Project August 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Riverine
Long-range Effects of Airgun Noise on Marine Mammals: Responses as a Function of Received Sound Level and Distance Bain, D., Williams, R. May 2006 Report Noise Marine Mammals
Long-tailed Duck Report, Winter 2005-2006 ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes Peterson, T. January 2016 Report Bats
Long-Term Post-Fire Effects on Spatial Ecology and Reproductive Output of Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind Energy Facility near Palm Springs, California, USA Lovich, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Magnetic Intensity Study: Long Island Replacement Cables Ocean Surveys November 2010 Report EMF
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Sea Turtles
Maiden Wind Farm Benton County, Washington Final SEPA Environmental Impact Statement and Final NEPA Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration, Benton County, Washington January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Maine Coastal Plan Maine State Planning Office May 2011 Report Static Device Socio-economics
Maine Deepwater Offshore Wind Report University of Maine, Rockefeller Brothers Fund September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Socio-economics
Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols for Tidal Power Peterson, M. February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Male Greater Prairie-Chickens Adjust their Vocalizations in the Presence of Wind Turbine Noise Whalen, C., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Managing coexistence for bats and wind turbines Alvarez-Castaneda, T., Lidicker, W. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Managing Eco-System Service Decisions Ullman, D., Halsey, K., Goldfinger, C. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Mandibular Fractures in Short-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus Oremland, M., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Based on Burrowing Owl Burrows, Raptor Flights, and Collisions with Wind Turbines Smallwood, K., Neher, L. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development Technical Support and General Environmental Studies Copping, A., Geerlofs, S. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures Cool, R., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general
Marine Animal Alert System Task 2.1.5.3 - Development of Monitoring Technologies Final Report Carlson, T., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands Costa, B., Kendall, M. July 2016 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Marine Habitat Use of North Pacific Albatrosses During the Non-breeding Season and Their Spatial and Temporal Interactions with Commercial Fisheries in Alaska Suryan, R., Balogh, G., Fischer, K. March 2008 Report Birds, Seabirds
Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems: Using systems thinking in resource characterization and estimating costs for the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents Domenech, J., Eveleigh, T., Tanju, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Technology and the Environment: Device-Biota Interactions Crevison, S., Li, Y., Thresher, R. December 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device
Marine Hydrokinetics Regulatory Processes Literature Review O'Neil, R., Stains, G., Freeman, M. March 2019 Report Marine Energy general
Marine Mammal Behavioral Response to Tidal Turbine Sound Polagye, B., et al. June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report Noise Marine Mammals

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