United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1127
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1 Land-based Wind Energy US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Eagles and Wind Energy: Identifying Research Priorities Allison, T. May 2012 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Eastern Pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report Bats
Ecological Baseline Studies for the Hatchet Ridge Wind Energy Project, Shasta County, California Young, D. Jr., et al. August 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Ecological Baseline Studies Report Proposed Dry Lake Wind Project, Navajo County, Arizona Young, D. Jr., Poulton, V., Bay, K. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Ecosystem
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest Boehlert, G., et al. January 2008 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological performance of young-of-the-year blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus) associated with oil platforms and natural reefs in California as measured by daily growth rates Love, M., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Ecological Value of Submerged Breakwaters for Habitat Enhancement on a Residential Scale Scyphers, S., Powers, S., Heck, K. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Ecology and Demography of Bicknell's Thrush on East Mountain, East Haven, Vermont: Evaluating Potential Impacts of Wind Turbine Construction Rimmer, C., Faccio, S. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Ecology of Fishes in a High-Latitude, Turbid River with Implications for the Impacts of Hydrokinetic Devices Seitz, A., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal Fish
Economic Impact from Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Coastal Counties Jimenez, T., Tegen, S., Beiter, P. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Jimenez, T., Tegen, S. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Economics: National Ocean Watch NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2012 Website Socio-economics
EcoSpatial Information Database: U.S. Atlantic Region Madsen, K., et al. May 2014 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2009 Arnett, E., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2010 Arnett, E., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Effects of a Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection and Population Demographics in Southeastern Wyoming LeBeau, C., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of Acoustic Deterrents on Foraging Bats Johnson, J., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Effects of an Offshore Oil Platform on the Distribution and Abundance of Commercially Important Crab Species Page, H., et al. August 1999 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of hydrokinetic turbine sound on the behavior of four species of fish within an experimental mesocosm Schramm, M., Bevelhimer, M., Scherelis, C. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Effects of mid-frequency active sonar on hearing in fish Halvorsen, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Fish
Effects of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems on Near and Far Field Seawater Properties - A Case Study for Hawaii Jia, Y., Nihous, G., Richards, K. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Effects Of Tidal Turbine Noise On Fish Hearing And Tissues Halvorsen, M., Carlson, T., Copping, A. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands McNew, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Survival of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens Winder, V., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Effects of wind energy generation and white-nose syndrome on the viability of the Indiana bat Erickson, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations Lovich, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Effects of Wind-Energy Facilities on Breeding Grassland Bird Distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of wind‐energy facilities on breeding grassland bird distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Elasmobranch and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables March 2015 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Empirical Evidence for Factors Affecting Searcher Efficiency and Scavenging Rates at a Coastal, Terrestrial Wind-Power Facility Peters, K., Mizrahi, D., Allen, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Energy Development Siting Recommendations for Playas Bartuszevige, A., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America McDonald, R., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Ecosystem
ENOW Explorer National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration January 2012 Website Socio-economics
Ensuring the sustainable development of ocean energy technologies through environmental assessment laws and policies Wright, G., Willsteed, E., O'Hagan, A. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Environmental and Human Dimensions of Ocean Renewable Energy Development Henkel, S., Conway, F., Boehlert, G. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Environmental Assessment for Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Project City of Hastings September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Environmental Assessment for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion in Hawaii Comfort, C., Vega, L. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Assessment for Proposed Wave Energy Technology Project in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii Office of Naval Research January 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Volume I: Environmental Assessment AECOM June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Environmental Characteristics of Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Burrow Locations in an Altered Industrial Landscape Lovich, J., Daniels, R. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Development: Proceedings of a Scientific Workshop Polagye, B., et al. April 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impacts Due to Fixed and Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Brewer, M. September 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Sandercock, B. May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Environmental Report: High Prairie II Wind Project Minnesota Department of Commerce February 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Studies Related to the Operation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Rogers, S., et al. December 1977 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
EPRI Workshop on EMF and Aquatic Life Electric Power Research Institute April 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general EMF Nearfield Habitat
Estimates of Bird Collision Mortality at Wind Facilities in the Contiguous United States of America Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimates of Water Turbine Noise Levels Guerra, J. May 2011 Thesis Marine Energy general Noise
Estimating Distribution of Sedimentary Benthic Habitats and Species on the Eastern Pacific Shelf and Detecting Effects of Device Deployment Henkel, S., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Estimating Effects of Tidal Power Projects and Climate Change on Threatened and Endangered Marine Species and Their Food Web Busch, S., Greene, C., Good, T. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Estimating Enhancement of Fish Production by Offshore Artificial Reefs: Uncertainty Exhibited by Divergent Scenarios Powers, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device [Conference Paper] Shen, H., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Fish
Estimating wind turbine fatalities using integrated detection trials Smallwood, K. Shawn, et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Estimation of Acoustic Particle Motion and Source Bearing Using a Drifting Hydrophone Array Near a River Current Turbine to Assess Disturbances to Fish Murphy, P. January 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Riverine Noise Fish
Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines Schweizer, P., Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. May 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Phase 1 Post Construction Wildlife Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. February 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Evaluating a Novel Approach to Optimize Operational Minimization to Reduce Bat Fatalities at the Pinnacle Wind Farm, Mineral County, West Virginia, 2015 Schirmacher, M., et al. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites Horne, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Evaluating habitat, prey, and mesopredator associations in a community of marine birds Goyert, H., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Birds, Seabirds
Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Feasibility off the California Central Coast Feinberg, L., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Evaluating Pre-Construction Sampling Regimes for Assessing Patterns of Bat Activity at a Wind Energy Development in Southern California Weller, T. July 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices, Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters Kramer, S., et al. May 2015 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Evaluation of a Passive Acoustic Monitoring Network for Harbor Porpoise in California Jacobson, E., Forney, K., Harvey, J. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Marine Mammals
Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Kaplan Turbines Deng, Z., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Large Kaplan Turbines Deng, Z., et al. November 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Evaluation of Juvenile Salmon Behavior at Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, using a Multibeam Technique Johnson, R., Moursund, R. September 2000 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Evaluation of Mobile Acoustic Techniques for Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Bats
Evidence that Bats Perceive Wind Turbine Surfaces to be Water McAlexander, A. December 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article EMF Marine Mammals
Examining the Impacts of Tidal Energy Capture from an Ecosystem Services Perspective Leslie, H., Palmer, M. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Existing Natural Resource Conditions at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Experimental Chronic Noise Is Related to Elevated Fecal Corticosteroid Metabolites in Lekking Male Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) Blickley, J., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Experimental Evaluation of a Mixer-Ejector Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine at Two Open-Water Tidal Energy Test Sites in NH and MA Rowell, M., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general
Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Chronic Anthropogenic Noise on Abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at Leks Blickley, J., Blackwood, D., Patricelli, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Experimental Investigation of Helical Cross-Flow Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulance Bachant, P., Wosnik, M. July 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Exploring the Impact of Technology Development and Adoption for Sustainable Hydroelectric Power and Storage Technologies in the Pacific Northwest United States Cowan, K., Daim, T., Anderson, T. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Factors Influencing the Diving Behaviour of Fish Eating Killer Whales: Sex Differences and Diel and Interannual Variation in Diving Rates Baird, R., Hanson, M., Dill, L. April 2005 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors

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