United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1126
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Classification of Birds and Bats Using Flight Tracks Cullinan, V., Matzner, S., Duberstein, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Climate Change Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Doney, S., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Data Registry National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration March 2014 Website Socio-economics
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Legal Considerations Mengerink, K., Armsby, M., Diamond, J. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Coastal Marine Animal Surveys January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general EMF, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Coating Selection Process for Gulf Stream Hydroturbines Bak, A. December 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project September 2012 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2014 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2016 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine April 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Collaborative Research on Finfish, Their Distribution, and Diversity in Cobscook Bay Vieser, J. August 2014 Thesis Fish
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Collision Avoidance of Golden Eagles at Wind Farms Under the 'Band' Collision Risk Model Whitfield, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Collision Risk and Micro-Avoidance Rates of Birds with Wind Turbines in Flanders Everaert, J. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Collision Risk Model for "rufa" Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) Interacting with a Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Facility in Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts Gordon, C., Nations, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Commercial Ocean Fishing Statistics for California California Department of Fish and Wildlife January 2000 Website Socio-economics, Fishing
Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Common Raven Occurrence in Relation to Energy Transmission Line Corridors Transiting Human-Altered Sagebrush Steppe Coates, P., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Communicating Marine Environmental Information to Decision Makers: Enablers and Barriers to Use of Publications (Grey Literature) of the Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment Cossarini, D., MacDonald, B., Wells, P. August 2014 Journal Article Socio-economics
Community Profiles for West Coast and North Pacific Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center November 2007 Report Fish, Socio-economics
Comparing bird and bat fatality-rate estimates among North American wind-energy projects Smallwood, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Comparing Transect Survey and WSR-88D Radar Methods for Monitoring Daily Changes in Stopover Migrant Communities Fischer, R., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Birds
Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines Young, D., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds, Raptors
Comparison of Blade-Strike Modeling Results with Empirical Data Ploskey, G., Carlson, T. March 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014 Pierre, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Comparison of Ship and Aerial Surveys of Birds at Sea Briggs, K., Tyler, W., Lewis, D. September 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Compendium of Avian Occurrence Information for the Continental Shelf Waters along the Atlantic Coast of the United States: Final Report (Database Selection - Shorebirds) O'Connell, A., Spiegel, C., Johnson, S. April 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Comprehensive Guide to Studying Wind Energy Wildlife Interactions Strickland, D., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Sealaska Corporation: Report September 2002 through December 2005 Lynette, R. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance Richmond, M., et al. July 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Conceptual Models of Potential Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Impacts on Biological Resources Grippo, M., Hlohowskyj, I. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Consenting ocean energy projects: issues, challenges and opportunities O'Hagen, A., Wright, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Consistency Conflicts and Federalism Choice: Marine Spatial Planning Beyond the States' Territorial Seas Burger, M. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Socio-economics
Continental‐scale, seasonal movements of a heterothermic migratory tree bat Cryan, P., Stricker, C., Wunder, M. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Coordination and Cooperation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy Maier, N. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Curtailing Wind Turbine Operations to Reduce Avian Mortality Singh, K., Baker, E., Lackner, M. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Day of Year, Temperature, Wind, and Precipitation Predict Timing of Bat Migration Pettit, J., O'Keefe October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Demography of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Unfragmented Grasslands in Kansas Augustine, J., Sandercock, B. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Depth Averaged Currents at Admiralty Inlet Pacific Northwest National Laboratory January 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Sequim Bay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Tacoma Narrows Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents San Juan Islands Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Water Levels for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Describing and Comparing Variability of Fish and Macrozooplankton Density at Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Sites Jacques, D. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general Ecosystem, Fish
Design and Development of Video Acquisition System for Aerial Surveys of Marine Animals Aghera, S. December 2011 Thesis Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Deng, Z., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Determination of Raptor Migratory Patterns Over a Large Landscape Seeland, H., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report Birds, Seabirds
Determining Night-Time Distribution of Long-Tailed Ducks Using Satellite Telemetry Allison, T., Perkins, S., Perry, M. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Hooton, L. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities Hallingstad, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Developing Capabilities for Tidal Hydrokinetic Blade Strike Monitoring Polagye, B., et al. September 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Developing fish passage and protection at hydropower dams Schlit, C. May 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas Obermeyer, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport Model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration Wang, T., Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. April 2010 Report Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Development of a Local Ocean Prediction Model of the Fort Lauderdale Region for Energy Extraction Purposes Bozec, A., Chassignet, E., Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Development of a Stereo Camera System for Monitoring Hydrokinetic Turbines Joslin, J., Polagye, B., Parker-Stetter, S. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article Bats
Differentiating Serious and Non-Serious Injury of Marine Mammals: Report of the Serious Injury Technical Workshop Andersen, M., et al. September 2008 Report Marine Mammals
Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus Gorresen, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Discovery of Sound in the Sea University of Rhode Island January 2013 Website Noise
Distribution and Movement Patterns of Gray Whales Off Central Oregon: Shore-Based Observations from Yaquina During the 2007/2008 Migration Mate, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Marine Mammals
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) Avoid Wind-energy Turbines in Agricultural Fields in Indiana During Spring Migration? Homoya, W., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - Octoboer 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont Agency of Natural Resources April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Drag from fishing gear entangling North Atlantic right whales van der Hoop, J., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Dynamics of a Floating Platform Mounting a Hydrokinetic Turbine Dewhurst, T., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal

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