United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1114
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Western Passage Tidal Energy Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
The Efficacy of Midwater Artificial Structures for Attracting Pelagic Sport Fish Wickham, D., Watson, J. Jr., Ogren, L. January 1973 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Environmental Studies Related to the Operation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Rogers, S., et al. December 1977 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Assessment and Control of OTEC Ecological Impacts Wilde, P., Sandusky, J., Jassby, A. December 1978 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Field Study on the Aesthetics of Small Wind Machines: A Preliminary Report Strojan, C., Lawrence, K., O'Donnell, D. January 1980 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
A Workshop on Raptors and Energy Development Howard, R., Gore, J. January 1980 Workshop Article Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Assessment of Electromagnetic Interference Effects of the Solano Windfarm: Final Report Sengupta, D., Ferris, J., Senior, T. November 1981 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Energy Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement Bureau of Land Management January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Environmental Effects Assessment Program Plan, 1981-85 NOAA Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy June 1982 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Optimal Avoidance and Evasion Tactics in Predator-Prey Interactions Weihs, D., Webb, P. January 1984 Journal Article Ecosystem
Comparison of Ship and Aerial Surveys of Birds at Sea Briggs, K., Tyler, W., Lewis, D. September 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic Noise Associated with the MOD-1 Wind Turbine: Its Source, Impact, and Control Kelley, N., et al. February 1985 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Preliminary Study of the Feeding Habits of Pelagic Fish around Hawaiian Fish Aggregation Devices or can Fish Aggregation Devices Enhance Local Fisheries Productivity? Brock, R. July 1985 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts from OTEC-Generated Underwater Sounds Rucker, J., Friedl, W. November 1985 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise
Potential Environmental Impacts of Open-Cycle Thermal Energy Conversion Quinby-Hunt, M., Wilde, P., Dengler, A. January 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal
Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study Technical Report No. 11: Terrestrial Ecology Portland General Electric Company April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Potential Impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on Fisheries Myers, E., et al. June 1986 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal Fish
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The 40 MWe OTEC Plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: A Case Study of Potential Biological Impacts Harrison, J. February 1987 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article EMF Marine Mammals
Red and White Muscle Activity and Kinematics of the Escape Response of the Bluegill Sunfish during Swimming Jayne, B., Lauder, G. April 1993 Journal Article Fish
Modified Cave Entrances: Thermal Effect on Body Mass and Resulting Decline of Endangered Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Richter, A., et al. June 1993 Journal Article Bats
A Pilot Study of the Distribution and Abundances of Rockfishes in Relation to Natural Environmental Factors and an Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platform off the Coast of Southern California Love, M., et al. September 1994 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report Jones & Stokes Associates January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Noise Impact Analysis of Wind Turbines, Searsburg, Vermont Resource Systems Group July 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines in Southwestern Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Addendum to Final: Seawest/KENETECH Windfarm Development Comparison, Carbon County, Wyoming TRC Mariah Associates November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Altamont Avian Plan: Status Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service By the Consortium of Altamont Owners Richard Curry Associates December 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article Bats
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
US National Ocean Service's Estuarine Bathymetry NOAA’s National Ocean Service Special Projects January 1998 Website Benthic Invertebrates
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Studying wind energy/bird interactions: A guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites Anderson, R., et al. January 1999 Book Wind Energy general Birds
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Variability in Reactions of Pacific Harbor Seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, to Disturbance Suryan, R., Harvey, J. May 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Effects of an Offshore Oil Platform on the Distribution and Abundance of Commercially Important Crab Species Page, H., et al. August 1999 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Fish assemblages on mussel mounds surrounding seven oil platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel and Santa Maria Basin Love, M., Caselle, J., Snook, L. September 1999 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Baseline Avian Use and Behavior at the CARES Wind Plant Site, Klickitat County, Washington: Final Report Erickson, W., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Acoustic Monitoring of Night-Migrating Birds: A Progress Report Evans, W., Rosenberg, K. January 2000 Workshop Article Birds, Passerines
Bird Mortality Associated with Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Environmental Characteristics of Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Burrow Locations in an Altered Industrial Landscape Lovich, J., Daniels, R. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Commercial Ocean Fishing Statistics for California California Department of Fish and Wildlife January 2000 Website Socio-economics, Fishing
Final Report: avian and bat mortality associated with the Vansycle wind project Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian Risk Behavior and Fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 to February 1999 Thelander, C., Rugge, L. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
A Comparative Review of Entrainment Survival Studies at Power Plants in Estuarine Environments Mayhew, D., et al. September 2000 Journal Article Marine Energy general
Avian Monitoring Studies at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: Results of a 4-Year Study Johnson, G., et al. September 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Raptors
Evaluation of Juvenile Salmon Behavior at Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, using a Multibeam Technique Johnson, R., Moursund, R. September 2000 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Final Report: Wind-turbine related bat mortality in southwestern Minnesota Krenz, J., McMillan, B. December 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Characteristics of Avian Mortality at a North Florida Television Tower: A 29-Year Study Engstrom, R., Crawford, R. January 2001 Journal Article Static Device Birds, Passerines
Mortality and Serious Injury of Northern Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean Knowlton, A., Kraus, S. January 2001 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Washington's Coastal Zone Management Program Washington State Department of Ecology February 2001 Report Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Environmental Report: High Prairie II Wind Project Minnesota Department of Commerce February 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Seal Predation on Salmon and Forage Fish Schools as a Function of Tidal Currents in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA Zamon, J. December 2001 Journal Article Fish, Marine Mammals
Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Volume 1: Natural History and Population Trends Manuwal, D., et al. January 2002 Report Birds, Seabirds
Maiden Wind Farm Benton County, Washington Final SEPA Environmental Impact Statement and Final NEPA Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration, Benton County, Washington January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Are Southern California Oil and Gas Platforms Essential Fish Habitat Helvey, M. January 2002 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Baseline Ecological Studies for the Klondike Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Maiden Wind Farm, Yakima and Benton Counties, Washington Young, D., et al. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors

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