United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 713
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
COWRIE Workshop on the Cumulative Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Birds Norman, T., Buisson, R., Askew, N. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Wave Energy Device, Environmental Statement Volume 1: Non-Technical Summary PMSS April 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Collision Risks Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds Wilson, B., et al. March 2007 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF Bats
Wave Climate Investigation for an Array of Wave Power Devices Venugopal, V., Smith, G. January 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Environment Description for the EMEC Tidal Test Site Fall of Warness, Orkney Finn, M. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005 - July 2006 Duck, C., et al. August 2006 Report Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Skerries Tidal Stream Array: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Project Management Support Services July 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing Significance of Impacts from Onshore Windfarms on Birds Outwith Designated Areas Scottish Natural Heritage July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave Hub Development and Design Phase Final Design Report South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Valuing the Attributes of Renewable Energy Investments Bergmann, A., Hanley, N., Wright, R. June 2006 Journal Article Socio-economics
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Hydropower and Environmental Regulation - A Scottish Perspective Copestake, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds
The benthic impacts of the Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef Wilding, T. January 2006 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Simulation-Based Investigations of Fishery Changes as Affected by the Scale and Design of Artificial Habitats Sayer, M., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Scroby Sands Seal Monitoring: Analysis of the 2005 Post-Construction Aerial Surveys Skeate, E., Perrow, M. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds. A report on the BOU's Annual Conference held at the University of Leicester, 1–3 April 2005 Greenwood, J. October 2005 Journal Article Birds
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness Wildlife Observation Data July 2005 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site July 2005 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact Assessment Guidance for Developers at the European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre March 2005 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Socio-economics
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Stingray Tidal Steam Energy Device - Phase 3 The Engineering Business January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Connor, D., et al. May 2004 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Offshore Renewable Energy Installations (OREIs) - Guidance on UK Navigational Practice, Safety and Emergency Response Issues Maritime Maritime and Coastguard Agency January 2004 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Navigation
Measurement of Underwater Noise During Piling at the Red Funnel Terminal, Southampton, and Observation of its Affect on Caged Fish Nedwell, J., et al. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site October 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Long-Term Dynamics of Fouling Communities Found on Offshore Installations in the North Sea Whomersley, P., Picken, G. October 2003 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Demonstration Project March 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Yell Sound September 2002 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Islay Limpet Wave Power Plant Report The Queen’s University of Belfast April 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Evaluating artificial reef performance: approaches to pre- and post-deployment research Wilding, T., Sayer, M. February 2002 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines Turnpenny, A., et al. July 2000 Book Marine Energy general Fish
Environmental impact assessment: guide to procedures UK Communities and Local Government January 2000 Report Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Geographical Variation in Temporal and Spatial Vocalization Patterns of Male Harbour Seals in the Mating Season Van Parijs, S., Hastie, G., Thompson, P. December 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Argyll Bird Report Maguire, E. October 1999 Report Birds, Seabirds
Evidence for Infanticide in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Explanation for Violent Interactions with Harbour Porpoises? Patterson, I., et al. July 1998 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimating Harbour Seal Abundance and Status in an Estuarine Habitat in North-East Scotland Thompson, P., et al. February 1997 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Static Device Birds
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Counting Seabirds at Sea from Ships: A Review of Methods Employed and a Suggestion for a Standardized Approach Tasker, M., et al. July 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Westray South Tidal Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
West Islay Tidal Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Perpetuus Tidal Energy Centre (PTEC) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal

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