United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 736
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Measuring responses of harbour seals to potential aversive acoustic mitigation signals using controlled exposure behavioural response studies Gordon, J., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom Kolios, A., Read, G. September 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
A Quantitative, Non-Destructive Methodology for Habitat Characterisation and Benthic Monitoring at Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Sheehan, E., Stevens, T., Attrill, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Assessment of array shape of tidal stream turbines on hydro-environmental impacts and power output Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species Edmonds, N., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Modeling effects of a tidal barrage on water quality indicator distribution in the Severn Estuary Gao, G., Falconer, R., Lin, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Lagoon Environmental Interactions: Regulator Perspective, Solution Options and Industry Challenges Mackinnon, K., Smith, H., Moore, F. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ocean sprawl facilitates dispersal and connectivity of protected species Henry, L., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Automated detection and tracking of marine mammals: A novel sonar tool for monitoring effects of marine industry Hastie, G., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The large-scale impact of offshore wind farm structures on pelagic primary productivity in the southern North Sea Slavik, K., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates Hendrick, V., Hutchison, Z., Last, K. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Invertebrates
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: insights from Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies Thaxter, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
A Review of the Potential Water Quality Impacts of Tidal Renewable Energy Systems Kadiri, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK Gove, B., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
3D modelling of the impacts of in-stream horizontal-axis Tidal Energy Converters (TECs) on offshore sandbank dynamics Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Full life cycle assessment of two surge wave energy converters Karan, H., Thomson, R., Harrison, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
The legislative regime for environment assessment and approval of offshore wind energy developments in England and Wales Wawryk, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Nearfield Habitat
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave
The potential of marine energy technologies in the UK- Evaluation from a systems perspective Zeyringer, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions
Development of epibenthic assemblages on artificial habitat associated with marine renewable infrastructure Sheehan, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Contrasting effects of GPS device and harness attachment on adult survival of Lesser Black‐backed Gulls Larus fuscus and Great Skuas Stercorarius skua Thaxter, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Birds
Sensitivity of tidal lagoon and barrage hydrodynamic impacts and energy outputs to operational characteristics Angeloudis, A., Falconer, R. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Ecosystem Processes
The Ornithodolite as a tool to quantify animal space use and habitat selection: a case study with birds diving in tidal waters Cole, E., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
Empirical measures of harbor seal behavior and avoidance of an operational tidal turbine Joy, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Noise Negatively Affects Foraging and Antipredator Behaviour in Shore Crabs Wale, M., Simpson, S., Radford, A. July 2013 Journal Article Noise Invertebrates
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
The potential of offshore windfarms to act as marine protected areas – A systematic review of current evidence Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Wind turbines cause chronic stress in badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain Agnew, R., Smith, V., Fowkes, R. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Terrestrial Mammals
Tidal barrages in the UK: Ecological and social impacts, potential mitigation, and tools to support barrage planning Hooper, T., Austen, M. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Ecosystem Processes
Temporal Variability in the Benthos: Does the Sea Floor Function Differently over Time? Frid, C. April 2011 Journal Article Invertebrates
Simulation-Based Investigations of Fishery Changes as Affected by the Scale and Design of Artificial Habitats Sayer, M., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Fish
Modelling the Biological Significance of Behavioural Change in Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins in Response to Disturbance New, L., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Assessing the Vulnerability of the Marine Bird Community in the Western North Sea to Climate Change and Other Anthropogenic Impacts Burthe, S., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Large-scale citizen science improves assessment of risk posed by wind farms to bats in southern Scotland Newson, S., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
An assessment of the impacts of a tidal renewable energy scheme on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK Kadiri, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Renewable Energy Vs. Biodiversity: Policy Conflicts And The Future Of Nature Conservation Jackson, A. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Birds
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Comparative Effects of Climate Change and Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Shelf Sea De Demonicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot Jones, A., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
HS1000 1 MW Tidal Turbine at EMEC: Supporting Documentation Xodus AURORA August 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales February 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Opportunity for Co-Operation and Collaboration between Ireland and Scotland in Ocean Energy Marine Renewables Industry Association December 2013 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Teesside A & B Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Report on the Implication for European Sites Proposed East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Walney Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales April 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Development of Marine Mammal Observation Methods for Vantage Point Surveys in Ramsey Sound Nuuttila, H., Mendzil, A. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Use of Static Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) for monitoring cetaceans at Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs) for Marine Scotland Embling, C., et al. October 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
North Lowther Energy Initiative Bat Survey Report Cooke, L. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
An Offshore Renewable Energy Environmental Research & Innovation Strategy for the UK Natural Environment Research Council December 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Waterfowl
LCRI 2015 Overview of LCRI Research 2008 to 2015 Jones, P., et al. June 2015 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Red-throated Diver Displacement Ellis, I., Ward, R. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Spatial Framework Assessment and Assessment Criteria for On-Shore Wind Energy Development in West Lothian West Lothian Council April 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project One UK Planning Inspectorate March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project Two The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Finding out the Fate of Displaced Birds Searle, K., et al. February 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-on. Work package Report 6: shared, plural and cultural values of ecosystems Kenter, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions

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