United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 733
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom Kolios, A., Read, G. September 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Quantitative, Non-Destructive Methodology for Habitat Characterisation and Benthic Monitoring at Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Sheehan, E., Stevens, T., Attrill, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
A Review of the Potential Water Quality Impacts of Tidal Renewable Energy Systems Kadiri, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Static Device Birds
Concurrent and Legacy Economic and Environmental Impacts from Establishing a Marine Energy Sector in Scotland Allan, G., et al. July 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Context-Dependent Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Individual and Social Behaviour in a Cooperatively Breeding Fish Bruintjes, R., Radford, A. June 2013 Journal Article Noise Fish
Correlations Between Benthic Habitats and Demersal Fish Assemblages - A Case Study on the Dogger Bank (North Sea) Sell, A., Kröncke, I. July 2013 Journal Article Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF Bats
Effect Of Tidal Stream Power Generation On The Region-wide Circulation In A Shallow Sea Shapiro, G. February 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Environmental Impact and Appraisal - Planning Consent for the South West of England Wave Hub Harrington, N., Andina-Pendas, I. June 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site Sheehan, E., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Evidence for Infanticide in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Explanation for Violent Interactions with Harbour Porpoises? Patterson, I., et al. July 1998 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Far-Field Modelling of the Hydro-Environmental Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. February 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Further Analysis Of Change In Nearshore Wave Climate Due To An Offshore Wave Farm: An Enhanced Case Study For The Wave Hub Site Smith, H., Pearce, C., Millar, D. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Generating Electricity from the Oceans Bahaj, A. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Impacts of a Wave Farm on Waves, Currents and Coastal Morphology in South West England Gonzalez-Santamaria, R., Zou, Q., Pan, S. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Interactive Marine Spatial Planning: Siting Tidal Energy Arrays around the Mull of Kintyre Alexander, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Map of Bird Sensitivities to Wind Farms in Scotland: A Tool to Aid Planning and Conservation Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Mapping Benthic Habitat in Regions of Gradual Substrata: An Automated Approach Utilised Geophysical, Geological, and Biological Relationships Brown, C., Collier, J. June 2008 Journal Article Invertebrates
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Modelling the Biological Significance of Behavioural Change in Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins in Response to Disturbance New, L., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Noise Negatively Affects Foraging and Antipredator Behaviour in Shore Crabs Wale, M., Simpson, S., Radford, A. July 2013 Journal Article Noise Invertebrates
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Human Dimensions
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Birds
Renewable Energy Vs. Biodiversity: Policy Conflicts And The Future Of Nature Conservation Jackson, A. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Simulation-Based Investigations of Fishery Changes as Affected by the Scale and Design of Artificial Habitats Sayer, M., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Fish
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Temporal Variability in the Benthos: Does the Sea Floor Function Differently over Time? Frid, C. April 2011 Journal Article Invertebrates
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Use of a High-Resolution Profiling Sonar and a Towed Video Camera to Map a Zostera Marina Bed Lefebvre, A., et al. April 2009 Journal Article Invertebrates
Valuing the Attributes of Renewable Energy Investments Bergmann, A., Hanley, N., Wright, R. June 2006 Journal Article Human Dimensions
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Wave Farm Impact on the Beach Profile: A Case Study Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Effects of a Severn Barrage on Wave Conditions in the Bristol Channel Fairley, I., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
An International Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Copping, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Megavertebrates of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly: Relative Abundance and Distribution Leeney, R., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Spatial Planning for Sustainable Marine Renewable Energy Developments in Scotland Davies, I., Watret, R., Gubbins, M. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Human Dimensions
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Marine Renewable Energy Devices as Stepping Stones Across Biogeographical Boundaries Adams, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
In-Situ Ecological Interactions with a Deployed Tidal Energy Device; An Observational Pilot Study Broadhurst, M., Barr, S., Orme, D. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Fish
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Human Dimensions
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem Processes
Community Benefits, Framing and the Social Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms: An Experimental Study in England Walker, B., Wiersma, B., Bailey, E. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Aversiveness of Sounds in Phocid Seals: Psycho-Physiological Factors, Learning Processes and Motivation Götz, T., Janik, V. January 2010 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Towards a Spatially Explicit Risk Assessment for Marine Management: Assessing the Vulnerability of Fish to Aggregate Extraction Stelzenmüller, V., Ellis, J., Rogers, S. January 2010 Journal Article Invertebrates, Fish
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Spatial and Temporal Benthic Species Assemblage Responses with a Deployed Marine Tidal Energy Device: A Small Scaled Study Broadhurst, M., Orme, C. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Decision Support Tools for Collaborative Marine Spatial Planning: Identifying Potential Sites for Tidal Energy Devices Around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland Janssen, R., Arciniegas, G., Alexander, K. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Observations of Seabirds at Offshore Wind Turbines near Blyth in Northeast England Rothery, P., Newton, I., Little, B. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessment of Wind‐Farm and Other Bird Casualties from Carcasses Found on a Northumbrian Beach Over an 11‐Year Period Newton, I., Little, B. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Grey Seals use Anthropogenic Signals from Acoustic Tags to Locate Fish: Evidence from a Simulated Foraging Task Stansbury, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Minimal Effects of Wind Turbines on the Distribution of Wintering Farmland Birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity Miderman, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Marine Renewable Energy and Public Rights Todd, P. May 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bryozoan Distribution and Diversity in the Scottish Sea Regions Rouse, S., Jones, M., Porter, J. August 2010 Journal Article Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Wind power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities Aitken, M. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Diving Behaviour of Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential for Interactions with Tidal Stream Energy Developments Masden, E., Foster, S., Jackson, A. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds
Enhancing Local Distinctiveness Fosters Public Acceptance of Tidal Energy: A UK Case Study Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
Modelling Harbour Seal Habitat by Combining Data from Multiple Tracking Bailey, H., Hammond, P., Thompson, P. January 2014 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds

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