United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 736
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Fair Head Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Perpetuus Tidal Energy Centre (PTEC) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Brims Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Swansea Tidal Lagoon Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Farr Point Wave Array - Phase 1 Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
OpenHydro Alderney Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
North West Lewis Wave Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Torr Head Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
West Islay Tidal Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Westray South Tidal Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Anglesey Skerries Tidal Stream Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Counting Seabirds at Sea from Ships: A Review of Methods Employed and a Suggestion for a Standardized Approach Tasker, M., et al. July 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Habitat Change Birds
Estimating Harbour Seal Abundance and Status in an Estuarine Habitat in North-East Scotland Thompson, P., et al. February 1997 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Evidence for Infanticide in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Explanation for Violent Interactions with Harbour Porpoises? Patterson, I., et al. July 1998 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Argyll Bird Report Maguire, E. October 1999 Report Birds, Seabirds
Geographical Variation in Temporal and Spatial Vocalization Patterns of Male Harbour Seals in the Mating Season Van Parijs, S., Hastie, G., Thompson, P. December 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Environmental impact assessment: guide to procedures UK Communities and Local Government January 2000 Report Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Evaluating artificial reef performance: approaches to pre- and post-deployment research Wilding, T., Sayer, M. February 2002 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
Islay Limpet Wave Power Plant Report The Queen’s University of Belfast April 2002 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Yell Sound September 2002 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Demonstration Project March 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Long-Term Dynamics of Fouling Communities Found on Offshore Installations in the North Sea Whomersley, P., Picken, G. October 2003 Journal Article Habitat Change Invertebrates
EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site October 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Measurement of Underwater Noise During Piling at the Red Funnel Terminal, Southampton, and Observation of its Affect on Caged Fish Nedwell, J., et al. October 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Offshore Renewable Energy Installations (OREIs) - Guidance on UK Navigational Practice, Safety and Emergency Response Issues Maritime Maritime and Coastguard Agency January 2004 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Navigation
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Connor, D., et al. May 2004 Report Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Stingray Tidal Steam Energy Device - Phase 3 The Engineering Business January 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Nearfield Habitat
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
Environmental Impact Assessment Guidance for Developers at the European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre March 2005 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Human Dimensions
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site July 2005 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness Wildlife Observation Data July 2005 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds. A report on the BOU's Annual Conference held at the University of Leicester, 1–3 April 2005 Greenwood, J. October 2005 Journal Article Birds
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Scroby Sands Seal Monitoring: Analysis of the 2005 Post-Construction Aerial Surveys Skeate, E., Perrow, M. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Simulation-Based Investigations of Fishery Changes as Affected by the Scale and Design of Artificial Habitats Sayer, M., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Fish
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
The benthic impacts of the Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef Wilding, T. January 2006 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Hydropower and Environmental Regulation - A Scottish Perspective Copestake, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Birds
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem Processes
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Valuing the Attributes of Renewable Energy Investments Bergmann, A., Hanley, N., Wright, R. June 2006 Journal Article Human Dimensions
Wave Hub Development and Design Phase Final Design Report South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Skerries Tidal Stream Array: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Project Management Support Services July 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing Significance of Impacts from Onshore Windfarms on Birds Outwith Designated Areas Scottish Natural Heritage July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005 - July 2006 Duck, C., et al. August 2006 Report Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions

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